10th Grade Literature R.A.P.s

Unit 1: The Literature of the Ancient World

1.1 Pages 160 - 79 Book 9 of The Iliad by Homer
As Book Nine opens, what is Agamemnon’s current state of mind? Why? Who is to blame? Fully explain the significance of the statement made at lines 54-5 as a response to Diomedes’ speech? What does this tell us? Do you believe that Agamemnon is genuinely attempting to make amends here with his offer of retribution? Fully explain why. Keep in mind The Golden Apple. First impressions are very important in establishing a view about a character. What is your first opinion of Achilles based on Homer’s initial image of him? What does this passage, from lines 189-95, tell us about him? How is it clear that Achilles’ behavior at this moment of the text is truly the result of his upbringing? How and why does this passage confirm for you aspects of him that you learned in yesterday’s tale? Fully support your analysis by including details from the story I told you. Following this moment, Odysseus begins speaking to Achilles regarding the problems of the Greeks. Explain his method of approach to get him into the war starting on line 252. By the time he is done with his plea on line 310, do you think he has made a valid case to get Achilles in the war? Explain why. What is Achilles’ initial response? Why? After this, we get a great deal of wisdom from him in his speech from line 320 to 441. What does he tell us about mortality at the beginning of the speech? What does he mean here? He sees a sense of hypocrisy in the situation here when he speaks of Helen. Do you believe it is a valid argument? Why? What does he say in response to the offer made by Agamemnon? Why? We have the quandary regarding Achilles’ involvement in the war on lines 423-9. What are the two options open to him? Which is more appealing? Why? We learn a great deal about Achilles with the final word of line 431. What does this single word tell us about him? Why? By the end of Book Nine, Achilles has reiterated his rationale for not getting involved in the war over and over again, the final being at line 670. For whose benefit is this idea being reiterated over & over? Why? By the time this book is completely read, what is the opinion we are to form about Achilles? Why? As we will read tonight, Patroclus is going to play a major role in the war. In Book Nine, however, he plays a minor, but extremely telling role in the text. His purpose here tells us not just about himself, but also of Achilles. What are the implications here regarding their relationship? How and why is it possible to identify parallels between this and your summer reading for Mrs. Peroff? Make the connections.
1.2 Pages 305 - 31 Book 16 of The Iliad by Homer
What is Patroclus doing at the outset of Book Sixteen? What does Achilles assume is the reason for this outpouring of emotion? How and why are these assumptions incorrect? What does this attitude and following argument from lines 51 to 61 tell us about Achilles? Why? Fully explain the plan that Patroclus proposes to Achilles. Why does Patroclus believe this will work? Fully explain the condition that Achilles has with this plan. What must Patroclus do? What is Achilles’ rationale for including this stipulation? With whom is he most concerned? What is the single visual hint that gives away the fact that this is not Achilles in the armor? Why do you suppose Homer inserts that small detail? As Patroclus gives his very brief speech to the Myrmidons before entering battle, what major point does he want his men to understand regarding WHY they are fighting? What does this tell us about the Greek Army? How and why is this important to note when you consider what was clarified with the first two pages of Book Nine? Make & explain the connections. What does the passage from line 281 to 289 tell us not about Patroclus, but about Achilles? Based on the description from lines 391 to 412, describe both Hector’s and Patroclus’ current situation. What is the dramatic irony of this situation based on what Zeus has already decreed? Fully explain the significance of the passage in italics from line 413 to 423. What is the message to learn here? At line 468, the scene changes from the battlefield of Troy to Mount Olympus. What, here, is Zeus’ major concern? What does he want to do? Why? What is Hera’s response to her husband’s concern? What is her rationale and argument here? What is finally decided upon at this moment? What does this detail tell us about the perception of the role of the gods in this culture when you keep in mind the first word of line 471? With Sarpedon’s death and Glaucus’ subsequent plea at line 570, we are introduced to a MAJOR issue with regard to battlefield chivalry. What are the Trojans concerned with regarding the body of a fallen soldier? Why do you suppose that this would be an important issue in this culture? What does all of this this tell us not specifically about this war, but about the Classic Greek culture? What are we to clearly understand here about the concept of VIRTUE in the civilization? How and why does Zeus rectify the situation regarding Sarpedon’s body? What do lines 706-8 tell us about Zeus’ power and authority? Patroclus makes his fatal error on line 717. Who is to blame for this? Do you agree with this assessment? Why? What do we learn about Patroclus’ power in the passage from 724 to 784, especially when we focus on lines 735 to 742? Fully explain the audacious arrogance of Hector’s speech at lines 871 to 883. Does this change your opinion of Hector? Why?
1.3 Pages 422 - 39 Book 22 of The Iliad by Homer
What do you think about Achilles’ dialogue with Apollo at the beginning of Book Twenty Two? Is he to be admired for his courage or scorned for his recklessness? Fully explain your opinion. How does Priam feel about the impending conflict? At line 63 what does Priam ask of his son? Given the present situation, is this a reasonable request? Why? What do you think would be the future repercussions of this action? At line 80 again, Homer addresses the major issue regarding battlefield deaths. What is his point here? As Hector “waited, leaning his polished shield/Against one of the towers in Troy’s bulging wall”(22.111-2), he begins to reflect on the circumstances that have led up to this moment. What does he consider at line 126? Why? What happens to this idea? Why? Why do you think Hector reacts the way he does when he sees Achilles at line 150? Think about all that has happened in this book. During the chase, the scene moves to Olympus. When did we see this episode played out earlier? How is it similar? Different? Fully explain the significance of the narrative lines 225-30. Why does Homer put in this statement? What does it tell us? As the fight is about to begin between Hector and Achilles, the “grey-eyed goddess Athena”(22.241) visits both warriors. How and why is her interaction with both men different? How and why is this of significance? Correlate this theory with the earlier passage from 236-40. As Hector turns to face Achilles, what is the single request he makes of the Greek Hero? What is Achilles’ response? Why? Do you believe there is a hint of hypocrisy in this request made by Hector, when you consider what is said in the passage at line 350? Fully explain your point. The Rage of Achilles is heard at 363. Do you believe that he is justified in this speech? Why? What is the TRUE meaning of his accusation? The Rage of Achilles is seen at line 438. Do you believe that he is justified in this action? Why? The Rage of Achilles, of foremost prominence in this entire poem as is evidenced with the opening line of the text: “RAGE: Sing Goddess, of Achilles’ rage, / Black and murderous, that cost the Greeks / Incalcuable pain, pitched countless souls / Of Heroes into Hades’ dark, / And left their bodies to rot as feasts / For dogs and birds, as Zeus’ will was done.” (1.1-6) is a masterful implementation of the Aristotelian concepts of reversal and recognition. Discuss FULLY how and why these two ideas from Part Eleven of Aristotle’s essay ‘Poetics’ apply to the brief but epic battle between Hector and Achilles as presented in lines 350 to 361. How and why are these two moments experienced by Achilles? Fully explain how and why, keeping in mind everything from today’s lecture, Achilles is dealing with a powerful psychological torment at this moment in the text. What is the symbolic significance of the wound of desecration that Achilles inflicts on Hector? With this action, what is Achilles admitting? What has Achilles come to understand here? How and why does this moment in the Tale of Achilles completely embody the understanding of Mankind’s relationship with the gods? Explain how and why this entire episode is the fundamental embodiment of VIRTUE at this time in the Greek civilization. Discuss fully how it is clear that the lesson presented here is simply an echo of what Sophocles taught us in Oedipus The King? At line 460, what does Priam want to do? How and why does Priam feel that he can appeal to Achilles? According to Andromache, what is the tragic destiny for the future royalty of Troy? Why?
1.4 Pages 467 - 92 Book 24 of The Iliad by Homer
Look at the text on the first page of Book Twenty-Four. How and why does Achilles’ rage seem to have changed from book Twenty-Two? Discuss fully how and why a particular action taken by Achilles here is identical to his behavior at the end of Book Twenty-Two, while the mood has drastically changed? What should seem odd to Achilles regarding Hector’s body? In Olympus, two gods make their cases for who is in the right regarding the present situation on Earth. Who are they? What are their arguments? To whose case should Zeus give more consideration? Explain. What is Zeus’ proposal? How and why does this appease both the arguing gods? What is the point of Thetis’ plea to her son? What does the line spoken by Achilles at 150 tell us about his relationship with his mother? Once Priam is given his orders from Iris, he prepares to journey to the Greek camp. What is Hecuba’s response to her husband’s decision? What does she want him to do instead? Are we to admire Priam for his response to his wife’s pleas when he speaks at line 232? What detail about the journey does he seem to have left out? Why do you think he has done this? How would the omission of this detail change the nation’s opinion of their king? Why? Why would this be of national necessity at this moment when you keep in mind what transpired in Book Twenty-Two? How and why is it possible to also see this as hubris on the part of Priam? Priam then turns to his living sons. What do you think about how he speaks to them? Why? Tell me about Hermes’ behavior when he meets up with Priam and Idaeus. What is he doing here? He views Priam’s question at line 411 as “a test”(24.414) of true intention, but it is actually Hermes who is conducting the true test of intention with his speech from lines 415 to 428. Each individual is asking the question “WHY ARE YOU TRULY HERE?” to the other. How does the Olympian introduce himself? Fully explain what Hermes is doing here. How and why can this disguise elicit very different reactions from the father of the slain Trojan? Discuss fully how and why it is clear that Priam passed this “test of true intention” with the first question that Priam asks of the soldier. As Priam makes his subtle entrance into Achilles’ tent, what is the first question that Achilles asks regarding the King of Troy? Why do you think he means with this question? How and why do these two men, bitter enemies, share a poignant moment at line 546? How and why is it possible to see this as a commentary regarding a cultural shift of priorities from earlier in the text? How can this be seen as a change in opinion regarding the issue of war from that earlier established in Book Sixteen of the text? What do you think Achilles means when he tells Priam that he has “a heart of iron”(24.560). This is the second time that someone has made this observation of the King of Troy. When was this opinion previously voiced? How and why was the context radically different? How and why does Achilles’ tone drastically change at line 605? What is happening in the conversation between Priam and Achilles? Look at the final clause on line 647. How and why can this phrase be seen as growth in the character of Achilles? How and why would this entire episode play out differently if, as Achilles mentions, Agamemnon found out about this meeting? Why? How does Hermes help rectify this situation? What do we learn about Hector, the fallen hero of Troy, through the speeches of Andromache, Hecuba and Helen? Which is the more tragic hero in this text; Hector or Achilles? Support your conclusion with evidence from all four books read in class.
1.5 Pages 125 - 40 Book 9 of The Odyssey by Homer
With this second epic poem from Homer, we move thematically from the Dark Age into the Golden Age of the Greek Civilization. This is a character with a very different agenda and a very different set of cultural priorities as opposed to Achilles. This is clearly evident in the narrative voice of Books Nine through Twelve of The OdysseyThe Iliad was presented with an objective, third person narrative voice, a voice simply REPORTING the events of Achilles. There was a voice removed and detached from the tale, suggesting that the events are out of the hands of the individuals involved. Here, however, Odysseus is recounting his own events in a FIRST PERSON narrative voice, taking ownership and accountability for his actions. With the development of The Age Of Reason, the role of the gods dramatically changes. Here is the man chronicling his own story! I need you to keep all of that in mind as you read this text. As Odysseus begins his tale at the beginning of Book Nine, we learn a great deal about him as a character in the first paragraph. From lines 21 to 39 what do we learn about Odysseus’ personality and priorities? With the first stop on the journey home, fully explain how and why there is an antithesis of ideas with regard to what should be done? How and why is there a disagreement between the captain and his crew regarding what should be done after the initial attack? Who was right? Why? Next, we learn a great deal about Odysseus the leader in the episode with ‘the Lotus-Eaters'(9.86). What actions are taken in this episode by the King of Ithaca? Already, how and why does this Greek Hero seem different from the protagonist in The Iliad? The third, and major, episode in this book of The Odyssey begins at line 113. What observations does Odysseus make regarding the special properties of the island of the cyclopses in the stanza that begins at line 113? Come up with and explain two possible reasons for this to be the case. Add to this theory what is told to us on lines 122-25. With this early description of the island, on page 128, what is the overall tone or mood of this location? Cite and discuss at least two textual clues to support your conclusion. Discuss the special properties of the wine that Odysseus takes with him. Once in the cave, how and why is it evident that the crew has learned a valuable lesson from their episode with the Cicones as you look at lines 215-7? Why do you suppose that Odysseus, at this particular moment, obviously has not? How is it possible to interpret this action in a positive light? Explain. In the initial dialogue between our hero and the monster, what does Odysseus request of the Cyclops at the top of page 132? What is the response given by the Cyclops? What does this tell us about both Odysseus and his present foe? As explained at the beginning of the book, Odysseus is ‘(k)nown for (his) cunning throughout the world”(9.22). How and why are lines 275-8 a prime example of this famous quality? What did this response accomplish regarding the rest of his fleet? How and why is Odysseus’ behavior after the death of the first two crewmates to be applauded? What did he want to do? Why didn’t he do it? What does this tell us about him? Again, how does this make Odysseus different from Achilles? Discuss fully how and why the concept of VIRTUE has gone through a transformation. Discuss fully how and why the riddle of the name of the stranger was another example of Odysseus’ cunning and brilliance. How and why did it work? Fully explain the dramatic irony of the moment with “the ram”(9.445). Finally, as Aristotle explained, all believable characters in literature are to be flawed, to be believably human. After the escape from Polyphemus’ cave, how and where do we see Odysseus’ tragic failing demonstrated? What is going to happen because of this action? Why?
1.6 Pages 141 - 57 Book 10 of The Odyssey by Homer
At the beginning of Book Ten, Odysseus’ seems to be the recipient of some good fortune. How and why is there something disturbing regarding the family of Aeolus? When we lift our ethnocentric opinion, how and why can this situation be viewed as somewhat charming? What is the gift that King Aeolus gives to Odysseus? What major mistake does Odysseus make regarding this item? What initially happens to his fleet as a result of this gift? How does this episode ultimately play out? What is the obvious (and honest) course of action that Odysseus could have taken that would have yielded a better result? Why do you suppose he didn’t do this? What does this tell us about him? Correlate this with what is established about Odysseus at the very end of Book Nine. What is King Aeolus’ response to Odysseus’ second response? Why? Fully explain, in your own words, the construction of the harbor of the Laestrygonians. How and why, in this scene, do we understand that it is evident that Odysseus has learned a valuable lesson from the episode with Polyphemus? Similar to Book Nine, this book includes two minor episodes followed by a major one. Just like the first image of Achilles discussed in class, the first description of Circe is of vital significance. What is the symbolism of what she is doing when Eurylochus and his men see her on page 147? Correlate this with Aristotle’s ‘different kinds of terms'(Poetics, 368). Why does the behavior of the wild beasts seem not quite so strange once Circe has been introduced? Fully explain the conclusions that we can possibly come to regarding the “insidious drugs”(10.253) that Circe is using. When told of the current situation by a panic-stricken Eurylochus, Odysseus again exhibits another admirable trait. Explain. Here, we see an example of divine intervention in Odysseus’ adventure. How and why does it seem that the influence of the gods have taken on a different form in this book as opposed to the influence of the divinities in The Iliad? What do you think is Homer’s point here? What is he telling his audience? How and why, do you suppose, is this to change our perspective of this hero as opposed to Achilles? Discuss fully how and why the role of the gods heralds a shift in the concept of VIRTUE. After a year, Odysseus finally decides he wants to go home. Where, according to Circe, must Odysseus go before the final voyage home? What must be protected with “the sharp sword”(10.557) during this important journey? Why do you think that this is of such symbolic significance when you consider where they are going? Explain. What happened to Elpenor? How? Why?
1.7 Pages 158 - 77 Book 11 of The Odyssey by Homer
As covered in the previous RAP, explain the immediate behavior of the souls of the dead. Why did this happen? Fully explain why you think Homer includes the character Elpenor in this text. What purpose do you think he serves in this story when we look at it from Odysseus’ perspective? What does Elpenor request of Odysseus? Do you believe he deserves this honor when you consider how he ended up here? Explain. As Teiresias speaks with Odysseus, what does the blind prophet first say about the remainder of his journey? What must they be wary of? Why? Next, fully discuss what Odysseus must do after he has “slain / The suitors in (his) hall” (11.117-8). Why do you suppose that this mission has to be done by Odysseus after his journey is finished? What purpose do you think this will serve? Do you think it will serve as satisfactory to all parties involved? Explain. What does Odysseus learn from his mother regarding her, his wife, son and father? How did she die? What seems especially tragic about the episode with his mother at the end of their discussion? Why? After his discussion with his mother, Odysseus is introduced to a number of individuals “sent by Persephone”(11.228). Who are they? What do you suppose is the point of this series of introductions when you keep in mind the entire situation from which Odysseus is coming? Fully explain the significance of this passage of the book from line 228 to line 394. What are Odysseus, as well as we readers, to learn from this? How and why is this a clear political statement pertaining to VIRTUE in the civilization? How and why have the priorities changed with regard to warfare as we shift from the age of The Iliadto the age of The Odyssey? After this digression, who is the first person to speak to Odysseus? Why does the presence of this individual in this location surprise Odysseus? How and why did he end up here? Fully explain the bitter and tragic irony of Odysseus’ observation at lines 452-6. Next, Odysseus is greeted by the hero of the Trojan War; Achilles. How does Odysseus attempt to offer consolation to him about what has happened since the war? What does Achilles say in response to this claim at the bottom of page 172? How and why does there now seem to be a tragic sense of closure with regard to the quandary from RAP 1? Does this change your opinion of Achilles? Why? Near the end of the journey, Odysseus witnesses the Classic Tortures of Hades. Fully explain the sufferings of Tityos, Tantalus and Sisyphus. Overall, what do you think Odysseus was to learn from this journey? Fully explain and support your conclusions.
1.8 Pages 178 - 91 Book 12 of The Odyssey by Homer
As Odysseus returns from his journey to the underworld, he will be faced with four more challenges before he returns to Ithaka. Fully explain the first trial with ‘the Sirens'(12.41). What seems to be the most obvious way of avoiding the problem altogether? Put simply, why doesn’t Odysseus do what the rest of the crew is doing? What does Odysseus achieve by doing this, as opposed to how the crew deals with the challenge? Keep in mind here the tragic flaw that Odysseus possesses. Next, with the dangers of Scylla and Charybdis we have two terrifying options. What are they? When talking to Circe, what is the question that Odysseus asks regarding this challenge at lines 116-8? Why do you suppose he asks it? Keep in mind all that we have established about this character up to now. What is the response given by Circe regarding this query? How and why has the existence of this challenge inspired two well-known adages in the English language? Adage: a traditional saying that expresses something taken as a general truth or an observation of a particular situation Make the connections. Finally, as they start off on the last leg of their journey, they get past the Sirens with no problem. After this, however, Odysseus speaks to his crew. What does he tell them? What doesn’t he tell them? Why do you think he did this? Do you believe that this was a wise or a foolish action on Odysseus’ part? Fully support your opinion. At line 279, Odysseus is completely honest with his crew regarding the final trial. How does the crew respond to these facts? Why? Do you believe that this final trial, and its subsequent failure is truly Odysseus’ fault? Fully explain. Ultimately, do you believe that Odysseus did all he could, through these four books, in his journey from the battlefields of Troy to the shores of Ithaca, to keep his men alive? What, through these books, did he do wrong? In each case, explain why these decisions were mistakes. Next, fully explain what he did right for the safety and well being of his men? Is he to be more respected or loathed for his actions and decisions throughout this journey? Fully support your opinion.
1.9 Pages 189 - 209 of Antigone by Sophocles
As the first two lines of the play are read, how does Sophocles immediately establish a drastic difference between the sisters? What is the significance of this difference? Fully explain the cultural issue at hand as you read the first two pages of the text. Remember that this primary theme goes back to the fundamental issues presented in ‘Book Sixteen’ of The Iliad. Make the connections. What is the punishment set down by Creon in opposition of this law? The form of execution is of significance. What is necessary to carry out this form of execution? Go beyond the obvious. Fully explain Antigone’s rationale for challenging this law as explained on page 193. Do you believe that she has a valid case? Fully explain why. At the bottom of this page, Ismene discusses the primary cultural dilemma of the play. What is it? Once Antigone makes up her mind as to what is to be done with Polyneices, how and why do she and her sister disagree on the method of opposition? What does this tell us about both women? Explain. On Page 198-9, Creon clearly states his rationale for his point of view in this situation. First, how and why does he believe differently than Antigone? Second, fully explain why his argument is as valid as hers. How and why can both sides of this situation be seen as justifiable? Now; make a judgment call. With whom would you more readily agree? Why? Explain and defend your opinion. On Page 200 the Leader makes an interesting observation regarding present issues. What is the implication present in the statement ‘No man is mad enough to welcome death’? Keeping in mind the entire text thus far, why is this statement of social significance? We have some interesting commentary being made with the opening dialogue between the Sentry and Creon. What is the attitude held by the Sentry with regard to Creon? What does this tell us about Creon’s status in Thebes? Analyze the description given by the Sentry regarding Antigone’s crime, and discuss the tone and imagery of the events that led up to the arrest. Tell me about the implied significance of the imagery of the moment. Tie this conclusion in with the attitude held by Antigone as the sentry “swooped and closed upon” (209) her. What are to come to understand about Antigone here?
1.10 Pages 210 - 230 of Antigone by Sophocles
As Antigone begins her first dialogue with Creon, she begins with some insightful social commentary. How and why can the argument being made here be seen as a synthesis of the themes presented in each of Homer’s epic poems? As the argument proceeds, we get to learn a great deal about public opinion regarding this case. By the time page 212 is read, coupled with the information given in Creon’s diatribe on page 203, what are we to come to understand? What does this tell us about the People of Thebes? Fully explain the social significance of this situation. As this portion of the play is read, how and why has there been a shift in opinion with regard to the sisters as contrasted to the opening of the play? What do you believe Ismene means when she tells Creon that “when misfortune comes, he sends our reason packing out of doors”(216)? What is the significance of this statement? With the present actions taken by Ismene, how is it clear that Antigone’s plan is already coming to pass? Remember what she said to her sister at the end of the opening scene of the play. This portion of the reading begins with a passage from the voice of the people after the argument between Creon & Antigone. As pages 218 & 219 are read, what has happened to the attitude held by the people regarding this situation? Whose Homeric opinion does this most closely resemble? Make the connections. In Creon’s speech to his son Haemon on pages 220 & 221 he shares his opinion on family and women. What does he have to say on each subject? What can we learn about the Ancient Greek Civilization here? How and why is it clear that Antigone is the antithesis of standard behavior? In response to this, what does Haemon have to say about reason at the bottom of page 221? How is this going to challenge his father’s perception? As Haemon continues his speech on page 222 he criticizes the inflexible and praises the compliant. What is his point here? The question posed by when Creon asks “And I must let the mob dictate my policy?”(223) seems to serve as a theme of political transition in Greece. Explain. What will this theory bring about when executed properly? How do you suppose this political practice would contend with the present dilemma in Thebes? As page 226  is read, how and why has Creon’s prescribed form of execution changed from the beginning of the text? How and why does it seem less than noble? What does this tell us about him and his political standing in Thebes? Why is this of significance?
1.11 Pages 231 - 252 of Antigone by Sophocles
In the early portion of this passage we see a dialogue between Antigone and the people of Thebes. How important is public opinion with regard to what is happening to our title character? Finally with the introduction of Tiresias, the blind prophet, Creon is faced with some harsh criticism regarding his opinions and political mindsets. Like Haemon before, Tiresias speaks about the limits of reason when he explains “To err is human, true, and only he is damned who having sinned will not repent, will not repair.”(237) How and why is there a correlative thematic unity between the speeches of Haemon and Tiresias? When have we seen Antigone speak on the same topic? Make all the connections. In the face of all of this, Creon waxes melancholic regarding his situation with the following: “It’s hard to eat my words, but harder still to court catastrophe through overriding pride.”(240) What does he mean here? What is his political dilemma here? Is he to be pitied here? Why? Like all great tragedy, the survivor is plagued with a painful moment of RECOGNITION followed by SUFFERING. How and why has Creon become a “rash weak foolish man”(252)? Did he truly deserve this? What are we as readers/viewers to come to witness here in the presentation of this play? What are the major cultural and political  transitions that Sophocles is presenting in the presentation of this tale? Why?

Unit 2: The Literature of the Republic & Empire of Rome and the Emergence of Catholicism

2.1 Pages 27-41 / Lines 1-525 Part 1 of Book Two of The Aeneid by Virgil
Virgil’s epic poem The Aeneid chronicles the beginning of the Roman Empire. One belief holds that The Roman Empire arose out of the ashes of the nation of Troy.  This tale follows the trials and tribulations of Aeneas, the son of a Trojan man named Anchises (Priam’s second cousin) and the goddess Aphrodite/Venus. He has been asked to recount the story of The Fall of Troy. This passage begins with the plot of The Trojan Horse. Discuss fully the voice of caution presented in the character Laocoon. What case does he make to the Trojans regarding this “gift”(2.61)? What action does this prophet take to make his case? Keeping in mind that Ulysses is the Roman name for Odysseus, what events with which you are already familiar, are mentioned in this passage? Fully identify the correlations. We then see the appearance of Sinon. What role is he playing in this episode? What opinion/mindset is he establishing about the Greeks in this tale? How does Priam respond to Sinon’s testimony at the top of page 32? Why? What does this suggest regarding the King of Troy? Think about what the Nation of Troy, as well as the king himself, has just recently experienced with Books 22 & 24 of The Iliad. Make the connections. Next, we have a truly magnificent passage as we witness the demise of Laocoon. As you have already seen presented brilliantly in marble in Art History class, what happens to him? Who is responsible for this? How and why does all of this have a bearing on the prophecy given to Achilles? Make the connections! Following this, until the end of the book, we witness the fall of Troy. In a dream, Aeneas is visited by Hector. First, discuss the fallen prince’s physical appearance. How and why is this contradictory to what Homer (The GREEK) tells us about the body? Why would Virgil (The ROMAN) tell us something different? What does each tale suggest regarding the role of the gods? What does Prince Hector have to say to Aeneas? What has happened to the notion of Dark Ages Virtue as discussed in Unit One? After this dialogue, from lines 353 to 576, Aeneas describes the destruction of Troy. Fully explain how and why there are certain parallels as well as striking differences in both tone and imagery as you compare/contrast this passage to almost all of Book 16 of The Iliad. Discuss how and why Virgil would want to echo Homer here? What do you suppose that he would also want to deviate from his predecessor? What do you believe to be the author’s point here?
2.2 Pages 41-53 / Lines 526-952 Part 2 of Book Two of The Aeneid by Virgil
The official fall of Troy is evident with the death of King Priam. Discuss the means and tone of this execution. How does Virgil want us to feel about this moment? Why? How does this help us continue to understand Aeneas’ point of view regarding these early moments of the Roman civilization? This is followed, starting at line 663, with Aeneas’ confrontation with Helen. What does he want to do to her? Why? Who intervenes at this moment? Why? Considering what you learned in ‘The Story of The Golden Apple’, why is there a certain degree of irony in the actions taken by this particular deity? What reason, from lines 696 to 711, does she give for stopping Aeneas from taking action here? What is the cultural significance, do you suppose, in this argument? How and why is it possible to begin to establish a distinction between the social/cultural mindset of the earlier Greeks with the newly established Romans civilization at this moment? What do you suppose is Virgil’s point here? Book Two closes with Aeneas’ escape from the doomed Troy. This sequence opens with Aeneas’ final words with his father on page 48. What are Anchises’ last few thoughts that he shares with his son? What happens next, as you move to page 49? From this moment, to the end of Book Two, we witness Aeneas flee a burning empire. Discuss the imagery and tone established regarding the Greeks. How are they being portrayed here? For what purpose? Finally, Aeneas’ wife closes this passage with a speech from beyond the grave. What does she say is in store of Aeneas?
2.3 Pages 130-151 / Lines 1-746 Part 1 of Book Six of The Aeneid by Virgil
The second book of The Aeneid that we are reading follows Aeneas into the Underworld as he continues his journey, or “odyssey” from Troy to Rome. Like his predecessor Odysseus, Aeneas is taking the journey to receive information. How, with the first 40 lines of this book, do we have another allusion to an earlier Greek myth? How and why is this passage to be seen as a metaphor for the entirety of Book Six? Make the connections. Next, Aeneas speaks to a Sibyl: an oracle of Apollo. What role did this god play in the fall of Achilles? Why does there seem to be a sort of poetic justice in this? Think about paralleling this with Athena’s role in Book 22 of The Iliad. Make the connections. On pages 134-5 the Sibyl describes the ceremony that must be performed to travel to “the dark lord’s gate”(6.137). This is presented from lines 158 to 199. Fully explain how and why a particular passage here sounds painfully familiar. Why do you suppose that Virgil has included, on pages 135 to 138, the story of Misenus? What message is Virgil conveying to the Romans with this character? Discuss his actions. Once “the funeral was finished”(6.298), Aeneas begins his descent into Pluto’s & Proserpina’s realm. As Aeneas is about to cross the River Styx, upon observations made from lines 340 to 389, he poses a valid question to his guide at lines 391-4. What does he ask? What is The Sibyl’s reply? How and why does this response more clearly explain Elpenor’s situation from Book Eleven of The Odyssey? Make the connections. Once past “Cerberus”(6.503), Aeneas journeys through seven different realms of the underworld. They begin, respectively, at lines 514, 518, 522, 529, 572, 656 & 757. Briefly discuss each level. Who resides at each? Why? Discuss full how this description of the Underworld seems different from what was described by Odysseus in The Odyssey? Discuss. As Aeneas travels through “Tartarus”(6.654) we are presented, again, with the classic tortures of the underworld, from lines 661 to 726. However, unlike our earlier exposure to these individuals in Book Eleven of The Odyssey, Virgil more clearly explains to the reader WHY these passages are presented as we look at lines 727 to 746. Fully explain why we are meant to see these tortures. What are we to learn from them? Throughout all of this, what are the Romans being taught in this passage? Remember: this is propaganda commissioned by Augustus Caesar. What does the emperor want his subjects to learn and understand regarding Roman Virtue?
2.4 Pages 151-161 / Lines 747-1074 Part 2 of Book Six of The Aeneid by Virgil
Next, at page 152, Aeneas arrives at Elysian Fields. Discuss fully the tone and imagery presented in this location. As we consider the region that Aeneas just left, how and why are these pages meant to serve as commentary on social behavior for the Roman Culture? Discuss thoroughly the moral lesson that is being taught to the Roman people with this passage. Defend your argument. Discuss also how and why it is clear that certain aspects of the Roman description of the underworld seem to be the inspiration for another belief system’s later on. Discuss the connections. At this moment, Aeneas is greeted by his father: Anchises. Here I want you to very carefully consider the issue of family virtue as we contrast the Greek tale of this excursion with the Roman equivalent. Odysseus was in the underworld and spoke to his mother regarding his life. Aeneas is speaking to his father regarding the same topic. What do you suppose are the social/cultural implications embedded in this distinction? How does it seem that the Roman Civilization will be different from the Greek? Draw some conclusions on your own regarding this. Anchises presents Aeneas with a very fascinating speech regarding the souls of humankind in the passage from lines 859-890. Discuss fully what is being said here. In what ways is this speech a striking echo of theories already presented in this course? In what ways is Virgil “borrowing” ideas from his predecessors? Next, still in this speech, is a very peculiar phrase. Look carefully at line 886. Why in this line of such drastic significance? What is the implication present in this line, as you think about how and why the Roman civilization will change as it progresses? Consider also the fact that this text was written between 25-19 BCE. Keep this in mind for the rest of the unit. Finally the last few pages of Book Six, from lines 896 to 1026, presents Aeneas with The History of Rome. The most important passage here is from lines 935 to 946. What is being said here? What are we to accept here regarding the ruling family of the Roman Empire? Like earlier, how and why is it clear that terminology and ideas presented here will be borrowed in another belief system in the near future? What do you suppose that this would be of such importance to believe for the citizens of Rome?
2.5 Pages 38 - 48 of “Dinner With Trimalchio” from The Satyricon by Petronius
While The Aeneid was written between 25-19 BCE, commissioned by Augustus Caesar, Petronius writes The Satyricon roughly ninety years later at about 60 CE, during the reign of Emperor Nero. Here we are looking at a VERY different Roman civilization. Petronius is giving us an insight and commentary into Rome at it’s most decadent, it’s most excessive and it’s most corrupt. This passage being read is the experience of an elaborate banquet put on by an “eccentric” Roman citizen: Gaius Pompeius Trimalchio. In a novel that is a total of one hundred and sixty-five pages long, this single night’s banquet is takes up almost fifty pages! The narrator of the text is an educated individual of the run from the police named Encolpius, who is wandering the streets of Rome with his handsome serving boy and sometime plaything: Giton. Accompanying them is his other associate, Ascyltus who also lusts after Giton. As this passage of the text opens, tell me about the initial image of the man who will be hosting the dinner. What do we learn about Trimalchio here? I want you to look not only at appearance, but also at actions taken by the dinner’s host. Tell me about what he is doing and with whom he is doing it. What is the significance of this observation? Why would this overall image be perceived as eccentric or unorthodox considering the character’s status and reputation? As the guests walk into Trimalchio’s house, they view a series of murals on the walls. Here we continue to learn a great deal about the host from the series of images painted. Fully explain. This also clarifies the ‘eccentric’ behavior from the previous page. Explain. How and why is this insight into the differences between Greece and Rome with regard to social status and rank? At the bottom of page 41 we see an odd fusion of philosophies from the perspective of Trimalchio. What does this tell us? As the dinner begins and as Trimalchio makes his entrance, there is still an odd synthesis of class and behavior. What do we learn about Trimalchio based on his behavior with regard to his guests? Come up with and explain two possible reasons for this action. How and why does this action correlate with the painting? Make the connections. When you put the moment on its proper context, fully explain the importance of the following line as it helps define the host and the entire culture; “No one was offered water”(44). Make some conclusions. If we are to accept his lines as honest, what does the following line tell us about Trimalchio: “Yesterday I served much cheaper stuff and the guests were much more important”(44)? Again, how does all of this behavior seem acceptable for the development of this character? Fully explain the meaning of the verse spoken by Trimalchio at the top of page 45 and make the connections between this and the theme introduced with “the clock… and a uniformed bugler”(38). Discuss fully what this says about the cultural mindset of the Romans at this point in their history. Based on what we have read thus far, do you believe that he is a literary character to be admired? Why? Fully support your opinion. We learn about the culture with the story about the man who had to rent out his apartment. What does this digression tell us about the civilization? Finally, with evidence taken from this entire portion of the text read last night fully explain Trimalchio’s claim that “At dinner, I say, there should be culture as much as food”(47). What role does food play in this text? How? Why? What does it tell us about the civilization? How and why are already seeing drastic differences in priorities and behavior between Classical Greece & Ancient Rome? Explain.
2.6 Pages 48 - 59 of “Dinner With Trimalchio” from The Satyricon by Petronius
Fully discuss the significance of the fabric that is placed over the furniture as it applies to the course being served in the first paragraph on page 49. How and why have we already discussed this particular notion this week? With what is Trimalchio playing here? What is the significance of the article of clothing mentioned as it pertains to this course? What does this yet again, as presented on page 40, continue to establish for us about Encolpius? The dialogue on page 52 gives us a great deal of insight regarding the current political system in Rome. What is the major political/economic problem discussed in the first third of the page? Who is to blame (OTHER THAN THE GODS) for this? Why? What is happening in Rome at this time? How and why is there a certain degree of accountability here, however, given to the public citizenry? Of what is the public guilty, as discussed in the final third of the page? At the middle of page 55, Trimalchio returns to the feast. This passage should have been somewhat awkward for you to read. How and why can we look at this discussion led by the banquet’s host as a disturbing, repulsive bastardization of an Aristotelian concept introduced in the first unit? Explain the connections and the distinctions. Fully explain the social commentary being made here as we begin to clearly understand how and why the Roman civilization is different from Ancient Greece. Be clear, thorough and specific in the analysis. How is there a modern equivalent to the issue regarding the beginning of the course with the “hogs” on page 56? What is Trimalchio asking of his guests at this moment? Why do you suppose that this tradition existed in Rome, and currently is in practice, although in a different form, today? Like many passages in this text, there is a seeming randomness to this course. However, how and why does a particular passage of discussion from page 54 serve as an appropriate prologue to this course with the hogs? What does this tell us about Rome? What is the social commentary being made here? What power are the Roman people now wielding? What does this suggest regarding the ‘spirituality’ of the Roman people? Keep in mind what has already been established regarding the Roman Divinities by Virgil. As you read this portion last night, what were your thoughts regarding the passage about the “poor cook”(57), keeping in mind all that has transpired up to now? Why? Did the culmination of this course surprise you? Explain. How and why is Trimalchio’s behavior here to be seen as evidence of what was discussed about the “sign” on page 40? At the bottom of page 58, we get that fascinating story of the “workman”. What had he accomplished? What happened to him? Why did this happen? How and why is this theme relevant in today’s society? How and why can we see similar issues in our present culture? Why does this problem exist? What does this tell us about ourselves as well as Ancient Rome?
2.7 Pages 59 - 72 of “Dinner With Trimalchio” from The Satyricon by Petronius
What do you think is the purpose of the inventory of “estate records…(and) list of his overseers” that are read on page 60? Why is this here considering what has just transpired between Trimalchio and Fortunata on the previous page?? What does this tell us about the relationship between Trimalchio and his wife? How did the secretary just help Trimalchio “save face”? How and why is this another episode in which we see the distinction between the Greek Civilization and the Roman Empire; this time with regard to the role of the sexes? What did Encolpius assume regarding “the boy” on page 61? Why? Did you assume the same thing? Why? What ultimately happened regarding the boy? What does this tell us about Trimalchio? Is this an act of generosity or hubris? Fully support your conclusion. Discuss the theme of the brief verse on page 61. How and why is this resonant of the issues dealt with in Oedipus The King & The Iliad? How can it be also interpreted as radically different? Discuss fully the major cultural themes and, dare I say it, warnings dealt with in the first stanza of the poem on page 62. What does this passage tell us about Rome? As you look at the first few lines of this verse, what sort of thematic imagery is being created here? With that in mind, what seems missing from this type of thematic imagery? What is the point? What is going to happen? Why? After the two-page digression on pages 64 & 65 regarding the freed slave, Trimalchio intervenes and tells us “It’s the man who gives in in arguments like this who wins every time”(66). How can this be interpreted as contradictory? Why? How do you suppose Trimalchio means it? Is it a valid argument? Explain. In what situations would it apply? Why? How and why can it be relevant as a piece of social commentary regarding this civilization? Defend your opinion. What is Encolpius’ reaction to Habinnas’ entrance to the banquet? Why? What do we learn about this character with the explanation given to Encolpius in response to his immediate reaction? Fully explain the disturbing irony of the statement made by Habinnas when he simply says, “enough’s enough”(72). Where is he presently? Again, this serves as insight into the Roman Empire. Explain.
2.8 Pages 72 - 84 of “Dinner With Trimalchio” from The Satyricon by Petronius
Near the end of page 72, we get a great deal of insight into the character of Trimalchio’s wife. What does this fact tell us about her? “Fetters” are defined as chains or shackles, usually fashioned out of iron or lead, fastened to somebody’s ankles or feet so at to confine them. With that in mind, we get some very interesting imagery from Trimalchio in his philosophy shared on page 73. What do you think he means with the comments made here about his current situation regarding social class and position? What does this tell us about him? Given the imagery that he is creating here, why is there a striking irony in Triamlchio’s current situation when you keep in mind his past? Why do you suppose that Trimalchio would embrace this? Add to this the following statement made by Habinnas: “If it weren’t for the women, things would be as cheap as dirt”(73). How and why does this viewpoint seem to be radically different from the cultural philosophy of the Greeks? What is Habinnas admitting here? How and why is the description of Scintilla’s jewelry on page 73 a continuing social commentary of what has just been discussed as well as, yet again, another example of one of the fundamental themes discussed throughout the text? Make the connections. What seems especially disturbing regarding the course offered on page 75? What do you suppose is the point of this portion of the meal? What are we to understand here? What is beginning to happen to Trimalchio’s philosophy that ‘the illusion is as effective as the real thing’? How does our narrator respond to this? Why? Considering all of the poetry that we have discussed in class from this text, how can this shift have a certain amount of cultural significance? How can this transition be a commentary about the empire? At the middle of page 76, the tone of the dinner seems to take a strange move. What has Trimalchio decided to do here? Is this, again, generosity or hubris? Petronius is making a scathing allusion with regard to Trimalchio’s brief observation made in the passage from the bottom of page 76 to the very beginning of 77. Discuss the philosophy that Trimalchio is voicing here regarding his slaves. What has been decided will happen to all of them? Why? When? Why does this belief seem very familiar to some of us? When we keep in mind the themes present in the verses recited on pages 45 & 62, and when we think about all that we have come to understand regarding this culture, fully explain the social and cultural commentary in the references made on pages 76 & 77. How can this passage be seen as an epic foreshadowing of things to come? (Think about the time frame of the text) Explain your point. Trimalchio makes an elaborate digression with the final pages of the text being read in class. What is his point here? Do you believe that he and his wife deserve all that they have? Explain. As the scene ends, with the final paragraph of this passage on page 84, we spiral into the realm of the ridiculous and the absurd. What is Trimalchio doing here? Why? How and why is there a sense of tragic humor with the final image of the episode? As you look at ALL of the details presented in this final paragraph,why does this seem to be truly prophetic of what will happen very soon to the empire? Throughout the text, we have been privy to Encolpius’ take on the events of the banquet. What has been his opinion of this series of events? How is his a different attitude from all those around him? Based on this, what does Encolpius seem to represent or symbolize? How and why is this of significance when we look at the final moment of the banquet as presented on page 84? What is Encolpius able to do? Why? What cultural, social and political statement is Petronius making with the ending of this final moment of this banquet regarding the actions taken by Encolpius?
2.9 Chapters 1 - 12 of "The Gospel According to Saint Matthew" from The King James Bible
The Gospel According to Matthew’ is one of the texts at the beginning of The New Testament which chronicles the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. We all know something about the conditions of Jesus’ birth. In Matthew, Chapter One we have a thorough series of events which lead to the beginning of this tale. How and why is there a questionable conclusion made in the first verse of this chapter, and the sixteen that follow, when you look at what is told to us in the eighteenth verse of the beginning of this gospel? What are the implications of the conclusion already made when you keep this in mind? How is it possible to interpret this passage? What does this imply about everything that follows, in both this gospel as well as everything in this portion of the Bible? As we look at this opening passage, how and why is it also possible to establish a distinct parallel between what is presented here with something from Book Six of Virgil’s text? On what do both the polytheistic and the monotheistic belief system present an emphasis? At the birth of Jesus, there are visitors. What do we know about these three? How can they be characterized? What do they seem to represent? How and why is it possible to see the presence of these ‘thinkers’ to be in direct contradiction with what is required to accept the rest of this text? Why, then do you think that they are here? What purpose do they serve in the text? How is there a hint to the divinity of this character with the episode of his baptism? What seems a bit problematic with the final verse of Chapter Three? Throughout Chapter Four of this text, with whom does Jesus interact? How and why is this of significance? Why is it important to introduce this character early in the story of the ministry of Jesus Christ? Why MUST this character exist? How and why is this character vital in defining and understanding Jesus? Now, here’s the tricky part; Why can’t the role be played by “Caesar”? How and why does the earlier introduction of the “wise men from the east”(2.1) challenge that idea? Look also at how and why the study of the first ten verses of Chapter Eight rules out this possibility. How do the actions of Jesus here invalidate that possibility? After Jesus assembles the apostles, Chapters Five, Six and Seven present The Sermon on The Mount. What are the fundamental concepts presented in the first dozen verses of Chapter Five? How and why is the ministry of Jesus presented here challenging the current cultural and social mindsets of the time? In short, how and why does the teaching here present an alternate lifestyle to the Romans as defined in Petronius’ text? WHY is there a distinction? In what ways do we see a social and political radical here? What is already beginning to happen from a cultural standpoint? How and why can we see the same thing alluded to near the end of ‘Dinner With Trimalchio’ with that odd reference mad by the dinner’s host on pages 76 & 77? How also is there an interesting reference made near the end of Book Six of The Aeneid? Discuss fully the connections.

Unit 3:The Literature Concerning The Catholic Church in The Middle Ages to The Renaissance

3.1 Pages 1672 thru 1679 / Lines 1-205 (PLEASE Read ALL of the Introduction FIRST) of Everyman

Fully discuss what is accomplished with the first two lines of the play. How does the Messenger establish the tone early for the audience? Now look at the entire opening speech in the first twenty-one lines of the play. What are we, as audience members, to be reminded of through this passage? What are we to feel about ourselves here? How? Why? Discuss fully the connotative implication present with the first twelve lines of God’s first speech. Look at the choice of words here in this oration. What are we to conclude about the “Divine Being” here? Is this an image we are accustomed to? How and why is there a sense of irony in the observation made by God at line 28? Is this how God is to be perceived? Fully explain thematic correlations made between observations made in the rest of this speech and issues discussed earlier in “Dinner with Trimalchio”? Make the connections. What conclusions does God come to regarding mankind? As God explains to Death, what are the conditions of the “pilgrimage” (68) that Everyman must take? Discuss fully what Death observes the moment that he sees Everyman for the first time. Do you believe that there is anything wrong with the attitude that Everyman has here? Fully discuss your opinion. As explained by Death, what is expected of Everyman with regard to the “reckoning” (99) that he owes God? Discuss the following line as spoken by Death as a means of introduction: “I am Death, that no man dreadeth. / For every man I ‘rest, and no man spareth”(115-6). What seems odd about the claim made in the first half of the observation when we consider all that we have come to understand about this particular topic? Why? Here, this line encompasses both how thing presently are on earth, according to evidence already presented in the play, as well as how they SHOULD be in the ideal world, given the fact that the Catholic Church composed this piece. Fully explain how there are two drastically different reads of this line. At line 119, what is Everyman’s response to Death’s order? How does Death reply to this? Why? Refer to Death’s early speeches to support this opinion. What is Everyman’s next attempt to thwart this threat? Finally, there is a sense of acceptance on Everyman’s part with the question posed at lines 155-6. What does Death say in response to this question up to line 160? How do you read Death’s response to Everyman’s comment: “I had weened so, verily.” (163)? What is told to us here about life? What does this suggest about how we are to treat our lives here, again given the fact that the Catholic Church composed this piece. Finally, Death leaves, allowing Everyman to prepare for the journey. Observations made in this final speech, from lines 184 to 205, seem hauntingly familiar. Make the connections.

3.2 Pages 1679 thru 1687 / Lines 206-570 of Everyman
What are we to understand with Fellowship’s first line to Everyman? Fully explain the two drastically different ways we can read the following line as spoken by Fellowship: “I will not forsake thee to my life’s end”(213). How could Everyman have interpreted this? How and why would this particular read of the line give Everyman a sense of relief? Do you believe that Fellowship MEANT what Everyman interpreted? What is the distinction in these two different reads? As the dialogue continues, Everyman seems to exercise a great deal of caution with regard to this “heaviness”(216) that he has. What seems to be Everyman’s primary concern, as summed up at lines 224 to 227? How does Fellowship respond to this concern? What idea does he reiterate over and over from lines 206 to 240? What does Fellowship seem to promise at lines 237-8? Once the truth is out, how and why does Fellowship change his opinion? Why? Is this, however, such a surprising opinion to be voiced? Why? How and why do lines 309-10 sum up this entire episode from Everyman’s point of view? After Fellowship come Kindred and Cousin. What does Cousin quickly offer to Everyman? Why do you think he did this? This episode plays out very differently than the scene with Fellowship. Why is that? How and why is the pacing of this scene determined by the first thing said by Cousin? How and why is this line to be contrasted to the earlier line spoken by Fellowship at 213? Fully explain how and why these two lines are vital in structuring the pace of the two scenes. Why, then, in 23 lines does he change his mind? How is Cousin different from Everyman? Discuss fully what Cousin has to say from lines 356 to 358. How does Kindred offer some solace? How does Everyman respond to this offer? Why? To whom does Everyman turn after he is abandoned by both Kindred and Cousin? What is his rationale for this action? How and why is it clearly understood, with its opening speech at lines 393 to 398 that this will be of no help? In each episode, Everyman has recounted what he has been demanded to do. Look at the passage from lines 403 to 413 and contrast it with the earlier versions of this information. Isolate 407 and explain the significance of this phrasing when you consider to whom Everyman is talking at the moment. What is the implication of this particular choice of words at this particular moment? What does Goods recognize about itself with his brief observation from lines 440 to 445? How and why is there a thematic correlation here with something earlier in the text? Ultimately, Everyman turns to another individual. What seems to be wrong with this character? Why? How does Everyman receive a sort of consolation from this character? Looking at the entire episode on page 8, what has Christianity done to Aristotle’s primary contribution to Western Civilization? What must Everyman do? Why? How?
3.3 Pages 1687 thru 1695 / Lines 571-921 of Everyman
As glanced over in yesterday’s RAP, the sequence of events from pages 1686 to 1689 are of monumental importance is the study of Catholicism from the Middle Ages. As discussed yesterday, Good Deeds is weak and needs to be strengthened so that she can make the pilgrimage with Everyman. The strengthening of Good Deeds requires the inclusion of two new “internal defining characteristics”. Who are they? What do they have to do with Everyman’s deeds? What does Everyman receive at the bottom of page 1687? Again, what does this item have to do with Everyman’s good deeds? This Catholic sacrament of “penance” is to be seen as another cultural interpretation / variation of Aristotle’s proposals. What must Everyman do? Why? How does this affect Good Deeds? Why? How and why can this be seen as the implementation of a guideline set down by Jesus as he spoke with Simon Peter? What must the repentant individual be willing to do to prepare for salvation? As this process comes to a close, do you truly believe that Everyman deserves the fate that is given him with Good Deeds’ claim at lines 630-4? Why? What does this tell us about fundamental Catholic dogma? The speeches from Five Wits on page 1691, from lines 712 to 749, spell out a great deal of Catholic philosophy. What is told to us here about the priesthood? What is the implication here? What are we to understand here about Catholicism? Finally, Everyman accepts his destiny at line 772. After this revelation, from here to the end of the play, what happens to all but one of his companions? Why? Are any of them to be seen as truly necessary as Everyman experiences this transition? Explain. Fully explain the thematic significance of the following line as it applies to the entire literary work, how this simple line will completely sum up the lesson learned by Everyman and his entire predicament: “Fear not, I will speak for thee.”(876). What are we to learn here? Throughout the entire text, the character of Everyman had been working with an advantage that many of us will not have the luxury of possessing. What is it? That being the case, what are we to understand as viewers of the play? How is this to translate to our own lives? What are we to learn from the trials and tribulations of Everyman?
3.4 Pages 1581 – 1583 / “The Prologue to The Miller’s Tale” from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales, written in 1386, is a series of stories told by people from different rungs of the social ladder as they make a religious pilgrimage from London to the Abbey at Canterbury, roughly 100 miles away, in honor of Sir Thomas a Becket; a Catholic saint martyred in 1170. What does this suggest about this belief system with regard to social classes? The tales are told to pass the time as they make the journey. A Miller is a common, working-class bloke whose job is to grind, or mill, the wheat that has been harvested from the fields into flour. The Prologue to The Miller’s Tale serves an interesting purpose for the reader. What is the mood as established by the Host with the conclusion of the tale told by the Knight? To whom does the Host initially turn for the next tale? Why do you suppose that this is the case? Thinking about what we came to understand with the speeches of Five Wits, how and why is this course of action taken by the Host to be seen as an interesting social commentary? What sort of social tone is the Host attempting to maintain with this course of action? Think about the social class of all characters involved. How does the Miller change this tone? Why? How is this to be seen as a challenge of the behavior and actions taken by the Host? How can this dialogue be seen as a social commentary with regard to social class? By line 33, what has the Miller said about his upcoming tale? Looking at this, as well as the Reeve’s reaction, how will the reader respond to this? Why? The moral of the upcoming tale can be summed up with the Miller’s statement from lines 53 to 56. What does this mean to you? What does the author have to say about the upcoming tale by the end of the prologue? Why? What purpose does this passage serve for the reader? How are we to respond to this? Why?

3.5 Pages 1583 – 1587 / Lines 1-216 of “The Miller’s Tale” from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer
Two of the primary characters of the tale are introduced in the first paragraph of the tale. Based on this initial description, how are they different? What is the official relationship established between the two? After this, we get a great deal of information regarding Nicholas. How does the storyteller characterize him? Based on the description not only of him, but also of his room, what are we to come to understand about him? What does he seem to represent? After this, we get the third character in the tale. How and why is there a sense of ‘creepiness’ in the introduction of Alison when you keep in mind “Cato’s word”(42)? What does the storyteller have to say about the Carpenter’s situation with lines 45-6? In essence, do you believe that has he brought problems onto himself? Why? How and why, in this brief paragraph before the magnificent description of Alison, is there evidence of the fact that the Carpenter is not totally clueless regarding his situation? What is he worried about? Finally, the plot thickens beginning at line 86. With the dialogue from here to line 111, how and why do we recognize a drastic difference between Alison and Nicholas? Why does this relationship seem to follow “Cato’s word”(42) more accurately? Briefly discuss Nicholas’ behavior with Alison. What has happened to ‘the intellectual’? Why? What is Chaucer’s point here? After Alison voices her concern, Nicholas’ comment at lines 113-4 can be seen as scathing social commentary. What is Chaucer telling us with this statement? How and why is this line to be seen as a vicious attack on class? How and why is it also a brutal attack on the social norms of the time? How and why has the idea of social power shifted based on this line? Think again about the prologue of the tale. Make and discuss the connections. The fourth character of this “love square” is introduced at line 121. As he is described, how do we identify major distinctions between him and Alison’s other love interest? Looking at the tone and imagery of this description, who, in your own opinion, is the better catch? Why? How do the two men approach wooing Alison differently? How does Absolom seem to echo back to themes offered earlier in the prologue? Make the connections. Why? Look at this, yet again, as Chaucer witnessing a fundamental cultural and social shift occurring. Fully explain.
3.6 Pages 1587 – 1596 / Lines 217-632 of “The Miller’s Tale” from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer
What information does the Carpenter get about Nicholas from “his chore-boy”(229)? What is his reaction to this data? Why? Again, we see social commentary being made here. According to the Carpenter, what is the remedy for Nicholas’ current ailment? Why? How and why is his opinion summed up with the conclusion made at lines 251-2? As we keep in mind the TRUTH of what is going on at this moment, how is the “man of faith” being presented here? What do you believe to be Chaucer’s point here? As Nicholas explains to the Carpenter what he has “seen”, how does it become clear that Nicholas is using the Carpenter’s faith against him? Cite two specific quotes from the text to support your claim. Nicholas’ “tale” seems to be a fusion of the traditional and the modern. How? How and why is it clear that Nicholas is following the rules established by Aristotle at the moment of the text? Why do you suppose that the tale NEEDED to be this fusion? In other words, why couldn’t the tale be exclusively one or the other? What could Chaucer be telling us here? We learn a great deal about the Carpenter with his initial reaction to Nicholas’ story. What does this tell us about him? Does it soften your opinion of this character? Why? In your own words, summarize the directions that Nicholas gives to the Carpenter. How and why would the following observation seem to motivate him: “Then we shall lord it for the rest of life / Over the world, like Noah and his wife.”(371-2) Why would this particularly appeal to the Carpenter? Why is it that the Carpenter “weeps and wails”(408) as the he prepares for the disaster? What is the tragic dramatic irony about this predicament? As “the dead of sleep…fell on this carpenter” (429-30), what was happening in the house? Subsequently, what was going on “at Oseney”(446)? How and why is there a fundamental thematic correlation linking the two primary victims of this elaborate scam? What thematically unifies both The Carpenter and Absolom? How and why does it seem that they represent two different facets of the same theme? Once more, fully discuss the social commentary being made here. After Absolom is denied his true love, what is his single request? How is this wish granted? Why? Fully explain what the Parish Clerk does in response to this act. How does he exact his revenge? The following sequence is, perhaps, one the most visually hilarious moments in literary history. In your own words, recount the chain of events from the moment of Absolom’s first humiliation at the ‘hands’ of Alison to the end of the text. By the end of the text, how and why does it seem that “Cato’s word”(42) will ultimately ring true? Looking beyond the obvious hysterical surface level of this text, there is an underlying commentary about the role of the sexes in this culture. Look throughout the entire text, and keep in mind also what happens to the quartet of characters by the end of the text, and discuss the author’s perspective on the subject of gender relations.
3.7 Pages 814 - 825 Act 1 of The Tragical History of the Life & Death of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe
The Chorus opens the play with a brief introduction in the form of a history of Dr. John Faustus’ upbringing. What is told here regarding his education in the first 28 lines of the play? What does this tell us about the play’s protagonist? How and why do we see a thematic parallel established between Faustus and something already established with the reading of ‘The Miller’s Tale’? Make the connections. What is the social statement being made with both texts with regard to class? What else are we told regarding Faustus’ education? If you have already been on the other side of CORE, how and why is this significant when you keep in mind what you learned in Mr. Demail’s class? Faustus begins scene one with a reflection of his accomplishments. What conclusion does he come to regarding his studies at lines 10 & 18? What does this tell us about Faustus’ current pursuit of academic knowledge? In the passage from lines 37 to 63 Faustus considers one course of action and field study and then reverses his opinion and accepts its opposite. What does he briefly consider studying? Why does he quickly reject it? Based on his argument why did this happen? What was his initial rationale for embracing traditional faith? Ultimately, what does Faustus desire? How and why, if Faustus had watched ‘Everyman’, would he have remained on his initial course of action? Remember Five Wits’ speeches. Clearly make the connections. As he is about to commit to this new course of action, the Good and Bad Angels arrive. How and why does the Good Angel’s opening line seem familiar? Where have we heard this before? Make the connection. Explain the implied significance in the phrasing of the Bad Angel’s comment on line 77. How is each angel differently trying to motivate Faustus? Faustus voices his reason for wanting these talents after the Angels leave. What do you think about these motivations? Why? What does this tell us about Faustus? Without even actually doing anything, what has happened to the motives of this scholar? What is Marlowe telling us about power and corruption? Scene three begins with the incantation for summoning the devil. What do you suppose is Marlowe’s point in writing the spell itself in Latin? Think here about what we were presented with in scene one, lines 37 to 50. What is the underlying social commentary being made here? Look at the bottom of the page to clearly understand the content of the spell. The incantation takes place in two stages. Look first at the first portion. What is Faustus basically doing here with regard to traditional catholicism? What happens as a result of this first course of action? Why? How and why is the second stage different from the first? Look not only at what Faustus is saying here, but also at what he is USING. What happens as a result of these actions? Why? What could Marlowe be saying here? How and why is the theme established here to be seen as a parallel to a theory regarding fundamental storytelling as established in The Gospel of Matthew? Make and fully explain the connections. Faustus’ behavior seems to be somewhat odd at line 25 as Mephistophilis makes his first entrance. Why? What does this tell us? What does Faustus demand of Mephistophilis at line 27? Discuss fully the conditions of the bargain that is struck between Faustus and Mephistophilis.
3.8 Pages 825 - 834 Act 2 of The Tragical History of the Life & Death of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe
How is the tone established in Faustus’ first speech in Act Two? What does this initially tell us about the Doctor’s current frame of mind? What does he consider for a moment at the beginning of this passage? Why? By the end of this brief speech, what conclusion has he come to regarding God? Why? As briefly discussed in the last RAP, we see a scathing similarity between Faustus’ current situation and the Catholicism that Marlowe is criticizing. Fully explain how the following quote both parallels and polarizes Faustus with the traditional catholic: “When Mephistophilis shall stand by me / What power can hurt me?” (II, 1, 25-6). What does this tell us about Faustus? I want you to look at the ceremony performed in Act Two, scene one and make a correlation with another text from this unit. What is being demanded of Faustus to seal the deal with Mephistophilis? What must he do? Why? Fully explain the similarity as established in another text. Again, look at the social commentary being made here as you identify the similarity of theme unifying the two texts. How and why does the following line explain why Faustus’ soul is the price for the deal: “Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris”(II, 1, 42)? What does this tell us about the attitude of the inhabitants of Hell? On line 140 of scene one, what does Faustus ask of Mephistophilis? What does the demon have to say and how does he act in response to this request? Fully explain why. What does Mephistophilis offer instead? Why? How is this to be seen as another criticism from Marlowe as we unify this with something discussed earlier in this RAP as well as something discussed in Act One? Make the connections. What do you think is the purpose of the interrogation up to line 50? What is Faustus doing here? Why? Given what had just transpired, what does this tell us here about the protagonist? What has Faustus come to understand about the deal that he has just made? How and why is this concern dealt with by line 86? How has the treatment of Faustus changed from the beginning of Act Two? What does this tell us about Faustus’ benefactors? Throughout this act, how often do the Good & Bad Angels show up? What is happening right before their entrance? What concept does the Good Angel want Faustus to understand? Why? When you look at what Faustus is just about to do at line 85 why, at THAT moment, does Lucifer show up? What does Lucifer seem to understand that Faustus in unable to comprehend? Why, as discussed in class, is Faustus unable to grasp this idea? What is Marlowe’s point here? What are we to learn here?
3.9 Pages 834 - 857 Acts 3 & 4 of The Tragical History of the Life & Death of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe

As Act Three begins, in scene one, where does Mephistophilis take Faustus? Why, based on all that has been said up to now, is this an extremely odd destination for these two? In Mephistophilis’ speech ending at line 46, we are presented with a description of the “Ponte Angelo”(III, I, 39), or “Bridge of the Angels”, which is one of the ways to travel from the City of Rome in The Vatican. This is immediately followed with a description of a structure which is part of Vatican City. What is the tone of the imagery here? At what sort of structure are we looking? What message does it seem that The Vatican wants to convey here about itself? What is this to do to our perception of the present situation/location? Throughout this scene, how is the Pope being portrayed as he speaks? Why? What do we learn about the Pope based on the opinion presented at lines 139 & 140? How and why is this statement to be seen as a reference to an idea presented by Five Wits in Everyman? Do you believe that this is what was intended in the morality play? Why? What has happened? What is Marlowe’s point here? Do you suppose that this seems to somewhat justify what Faustus and Mephistophilis are doing in this scene? What is Faustus to learn here? Fully explain your opinion. The remainder of the scene, and Faustus’ general behavior and actions, seems to quite aptly support analysis that was established in the last two RAPs regarding motivation. What is going on here? Why? What has happened to the Scholar of the University at Wittenberg? Why? What do you think is Marlowe’s point here? What is the lesson to be learned thus far in the text? As the Chorus begins Act Four, what has been understood about Faustus? Has he achieved what he wanted? Explain. What seems ironic about the observation made by Martino at scene on, lines 30-3? Again, what is the social statement being made here? Synthesize this with conclusions made in the past two RAPs. As scene two begins, we, again, see how Faustus is using his powers. As scene two proceeds, what do we learn about the character Benvolio? How and why does he seem different from the rest of the characters in this scene? Based on what he says, what do you think is his purpose in the text? Considering all that has been said up to now, and all of the characters that we have been introduced in the text, why has Marlowe put this character in the story? How and why is it possible to identify a thematic parallel between Benvolio’s role in this play and a character presented in Unit Two? Make and fully explain the connections. How and why is the introduction of this character also to be seen as a commentary on social class? How and why is this individual able to see what no one else can? Given Benvolio’s behavior, and the opinions that he voices, what does Faustus do to him? Why? As a result of this action, what has Benvolio decided to do, with the help of Martino and Frederick? Why? What does Faustus do to the three usurpers? Near the middle of scene five, Faustus has a moment of serious reflection, however, he makes what seems to be a rather hubristic and blasphemous comparison in the first half of page 852. Nevertheless, given the events of this reference, what should he come to understand with the reference he just made to The Story of Jesus? Look for the Christians and Catholics in the class for clarification. Think about the fundamental lessons taught with Everyman for support. Look at the pacing and structure of the entirety of Act Four. Given all of the characters that Faustus interacts with here, and looking at his opinions of all of these people, what is the commentary being made here with regard to class and faith? What is Marlowe’s point with the creation of this character, and the journey of exploration made in this play?

3.10 Pages 857 - 865 Act 5 of The Tragical History of the Life & Death of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe
How is the tone of Act Five immediately different from the previous one? What is about to happen? What do you suppose is the purpose of the request of conjuring Helen made by the First Scholar? Based on what is told to us, what do you suppose this character represents given the story that is unfolding, and the character that we have been introduced to in this play? Explain what you think she represents for Faustus. Explain the bitter and tragic irony of the observation made by Faustus at lines 69-72, keeping in mind what JUST transpired in the scene. What purpose do you suppose the Old Man serves in the scene? Keep in mind how, when and why Faustus received similar information throughout the text, how and why is it different here? Explain the significance of what is said in the final brief speech by the Old Man in Act 5 scene one. What does he say? What happens to him as a result of this? Why? What does this tell us about Faustus’ destiny? As scene two begins, Faustus has a brief dialogue with three Scholars. Here, Scholar Two reminds Faustus, yet again in the text, of the one thing that he is unable to comprehend, even though he is reminded of this theory many times in the text. Why is it significant that now, at the end of the play, this same lesson is being presented by THIS PARTICULAR character? What do you believe the be Marlowe’s point here? How and why is it possible to make a thematic correlation between this specific moment of the text with what we learned in the development of Chaucer’s character? Make and fully explain the connections. In looking at Faustus’ response to the scholar’s claim, how and why can this flaw in Faustus’ character be seen as a sense of hubris? What has Faustus come to understand about his actions as the play comes to an end? What is this to teach the audience of this play? Discuss fully what you believe to be the moral of the play if you look at it on a fairly apparent level, given the ending of the tale. Now, take this analysis a step further and, looking at all that has been presented in the text, the ceremonies of Acts One and Two, the characterization of the Pope in Act Three, the class relations of Act Four, etc., and fully explain what you believe to be the IMPLIED messages conveyed with this text. What is Marlowe’s social commentary here?

Unit 4: The Romantics and The Victorians

4.1 Pages 35 - 45 up to "to spend the evening as I pleased." of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
This story is being read at the beginning of this unit as a comparison piece to the literature read in the previous unit. The portion that we are reading chronicles not only the creation of ‘the being’, but also what teachings and motivations led up to that action by Victor Frankenstein. As Chapter Two begins, we get a brief introduction to both Victor and his cousin Elizabeth. How is Elizabeth different from her cousin? What do we learn in the first paragraph about Victor? How is this character already established as similar to someone from Unit Three? Make the connections. After Victor and Elizabeth, Shelley also introduces Henry Clerval. Based on all that has been introduced, it can be seen that both Elizabeth and Clerval serve as foils (foil: a secondary character in a piece of literature that serves as a comparison and contrast to another character in the text, usually the protagonist) for Victor. Explain. How does Victor’s father respond to his son’s studies at “the baths near Thonon”(37)? Why? How is father’s opinion and Victor’s subsequent decision and course of action to be seen as an echo of something we saw in Chaucer? Make the connections. As explained by Victor, how is the ancient system of science different from the modern? When we keep in mind what Victor Frankenstein intends to do (think about the imagery that you already posses regarding this tale. and all the characters involved), why is the description made regarding the Ancient approach to science as being ‘chimerical'(38) of such thematic and imagistic significance? Paracelsus was a Swiss alchemist who believed that the re-animation of life was possible. With that in mind, again explain how and why, on page 38, Victor Frankenstein bears an uncanny resemblance to a character from Unit Three. Be specific here. As page 39 is read, Shelley elaborates on the prime motivation for Frankenstein to pursue this action. How and why is there definitely a sense of nobility in the character here? What is his rationale here? How and why is this to be seen as VERY different from his Unit Three counterpart? What does this tell us about him? What is the significance of the episode at the house “near Belrive”(40)? What does Victor witness? What should Victor come to understand and appreciate here? How and why should this serve as a warning to what Victor is about to contemplate? Keeping in mind what was already established on page 39, how and why is Victor’s motivation more fully elaborated with the beginning of Chapter Three? What was avoided? How? What was the cost? Why? Was it worth it? Fully explain your opinion. How and why is the final line spoken by Victor’s mother the voicing of a philosophy that has, up to this point, been markedly absent from Victor’s narrative? What is Victor’s mother trying to help her son understand with this final line? How and why is this to be seen as the second warning given to Victor? Victor makes the journey to Ingolstadt. As discussed on pages 44-5, what is now being offered to Victor? What does Ingolstadt represent? How does the narrator set up the introduction of M. Krempe? How and WHY is there a definitive tone regarding Victor’s opinion of this character?
4.2 Pages 45 - 57 of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
After his discussion with M. Krempe, Victor begins to contemplate the differences between “the dreams of forgotten alchymists …(and)…modern natural philosophy”(46). According to this specific discussion and reflection, what has happened to the pursuit of knowledge? What seems to now be of paramount concern from the mindset of the moderns as presented at the bottom of this page of text? How have we already seen evidence of embrace of this modern mindset twice thus far in the text? Explain where. What does Krempe tell Victor MUST be done regarding all that he has learned thus far in preparation for his future course of study? Why? What is being suggested to Victor here about the two different approaches to the study of science? On the next page, Victor is introduced to M. Waldman. How is the content of Waldman’s early speech similar to ideas recently expressed by Victor? How are they different? What does this tell us about the distinction of the two? According to Waldman, as you look at the passage at the bottom of page 47, what did each era have to its advantage? Why were the “ancient teachers” admirable in the eyes of Victor? How and why are the “modern masters” able to achieve success? What has changed? By the end of Chapter Three what has Frankenstein come to understand about his pursuits? What has he learned about what people have to offer him? Based on all that has been introduced and discussed in this chapter, what do you think is the formula for success for Victor Frankenstein? Keeping in mind all that Victor has come to understand thus far, what does he mean when he concludes that he “will pioneer a new way”(48) with regard to his field of study? How and why is it possible to identify a correlation between the conclusion established here by Victor and specific actions and behavior of Nicholas the Student? Make the connections with evidence from both texts. Think about Aristotle. What is happening to Victor with the first sentence of Chapter Four? What is implied here? What is the question posed at the beginning of the paragraph that begins near the middle of page 51? Why does Frankenstein ask the question? Why do you suppose this question goes unasked by many? Again, draw a very distinct and specific parallel with a particular character from the last unit. Frankenstein takes an interesting approach to the study of “the causes of life” as he explains on page 51. Correlate this theory with concepts present in our discussion of the social commentary made by Marlowe in Doctor Faustus, Milton in Paradise Lost & “The Gospel of Matthew”. Make the connections. The narrator directly addresses his audience on page 53. What does Victor Frankenstein have to say to the reader here? Here, he reflects on his actions and admits the error of his endeavors. At the end of the paragraph, he discusses the life that he chose not to live; celebrating “that man… who believes his native town to be the world”(53). Keeping in mind all of the characters presented in CORE 10 Literature, which do you believe best exemplifies this theory? Fully support your opinion. Now, fully explain, keeping in mind all that happens to this particular character, the validity of Victor’s claim. Is this truly the way to live? Fully explain why. Next, he chronicles the creation of the being. What are his hubristic aspirations at the middle of page 54? What does he envision? What does Victor admit as he discusses his “undertaking”(54)? How and why is this resonant of something from Chapter Three? Make the connections. The final three pages of this chapter are presented with a very specific and interesting mood. As Victor discusses the steps and processes taken in the creation of the “chimera”, what tone does he seem to attach to this sequence of events? Why do you suppose that he is feeling this way? Fully discuss the ethical reflections made by Victor in the paragraph that dominates pages 55 & 56. What conclusions does he seem to have come to regarding the course of action that he has taken? Here, we must remember that this entire tale is being told in retrospect, years after the actions were actually taken.
4.3 Pages 58 - 64 & 74 - 80 ending with "all that was dear to me." of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
Chapter Five begins with the birth of the creation. How and why is there a sense of cruelty in the tone of the second paragraph as Frankenstein looks over his creation? Given the relationship of the two, why do the words Frankenstein uses to name his creation seem somewhat harsh? How and why does the feeling of obsession take a somewhat drastic shift in the third paragraph of the fifth chapter? What does this tell us about the protagonist of the tale? Frankenstein describes an interesting dream sequence on page 59. What does he present to the reader here? What happens in the dream? If we look at this sequence as a hint into Victor’s subconscious, and if we play psychoanalysts for a moment here, what does this sequence clarify about his current frame of mind regarding what he has done? After the dream, at the middle of page 59, we have the initial interaction between creator and created. What happens here? Tell me about the creation’s first behavior when it looks up to Victor. What is it doing? How and why is this behavior to be somewhat expected and natural, given the moment and their relationship, as you think about a parallel to this in our world? How does Victor react to this? What seems wrong with this? Why? On what does this course of action seem to be entirely based? What is motivating Victor at this precise moment? What do you believe to be the author’s point here? Upon Clerval’s arrival, he comments on Victor’s appearance. What is the irony of this observation keeping in mind the current situation? As pages 62-3 are read, discuss fully Frankenstein’s actions. Considering this character, why does this behavior seem somewhat odd? Before Chapter Five closes there is a parallelism to an event from the beginning of Chapter Three. Given the earlier version, what is implied here with regard to these two characters? Make the connections. Chapter Seven begins with some devastating news for Victor Frankenstein. What do we learn about Victor’s father with the final paragraph of the letter to his son? Is this a characteristic that Victor inherited from his father? Explain with evidence from throughout the text that we have read thus far. Clerval comments on the death of William at the middle of page 77. Why does his reflection seem to contain a hint of foreshadowing? Why do you suppose that Shelley inserts this passage? Victor Frankenstein then makes the return trip to his hometown. How and why is this passage strikingly different in tone and mood from everything that precedes it in the text? Why does he wax melancholic on page 78? What is Shelley’s point here in incorporating this detail into the continuing development of the text’s protagonist? Why do you think that Victor has concluded that he “was destined to become the most wretched of human beings”(78)? What has he succeeded in doing? What is wrong with this? What has he come to understand about all that he has done thus far? As the odyssey continues on page 79 the author makes a tonal adjustment in the natural setting. What is happening here? Given the current situation, what is the author’s point here? Discuss the symbolism of this natural imagery with regard to the protagonist of the story keeping in mind all his actions that have led to this moment. As this passage closes we come to understand, as well as the protagonist of the text, the awesome tragic irony of this character. What has happened as a result of Victor Frankenstein’s attitude and actions? What is the author’s point with the creation of this tale?
4.4 Pages 101 - 107 & 149 starting with "As soon as I was convinced"- 155 of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley
Frankenstein’s hunt for the creation in the opening of Chapter Ten takes him further and further into the wild and awesome majesty of nature. He reflects “the sight of the awful and majestic in nature had indeed always the effect of solemnizing (his) mind”(102). How do you interpret this line? Why? Do you agree with this conclusion? Why? Shelley further changes the setting by reiterating the theme of the destructive power of nature first mentioned during Frankenstein’s trip “near Belrive”(40). How and why does the in-depth description of the results of the avalanche on pages 101 & 102 apply to Victor’s current mission? What is he to understand with this imagery? How and why does it resonate with what this man has tried to accomplish? What conclusion does Frankenstein come to at the top of page 103 with regard to being “nearly free”? How should life be led to achieve this goal? What is the benefit of this type of existence? How is it detrimental for a society? Keeping in mind that “mutability” is defined as change, what is the point of the verse written by Percy Bysshe Shelley: Mary Shelley’s husband, near the top of page 103? Put it in context with the rest of the setting. Finally beginning at page 104, the confrontation begins between Frankenstein and his creation. What is the significance of the first thing that Victor notices about the creation’s “countenance” (104)? What does this tell us about him? As the scene develops on pages 104 & 105, what seems ironic about the initial tone and dialogue presented and developed by each of the two characters? Why do you suppose this is the case here? What do you suppose to be Shelley’s point in the initial dialogue? On page 105 the creation makes allusions to a specific text from Unit Three from Tenth Grade CORE. What does he have to say regarding this text? How and why is it clear that the creation’s read and analysis of this text correlates with ours in class? As he further explains, what is the major misfortune of Frankenstein’s creation? How is it clear, upon reading page 105, that Victor ultimately succeeded with his creation? What does the creation admit about itself by the end of this page? Why, then, do you suppose that it develops the way it does? On what is society basing its judgment on the creation? What is the social commentary being made here by Shelley? What is she saying about us here? The final portion of the text read in class, from pages 149 to 155 is a narrative from the point of view of the creation. He here gives his account of the events leading up to and including the death of William and just a few actions following the crime. How can the creation’s’s experience and motivation on pages 149 & 150 be seen as somewhat of an equivalent to Everyman? How is it similar? Different? In other words, who will be expected to present a “reckoning”? What is it attempting to do? Where is it headed? The creation describes its “travels”(150). What is the symbolic significance of the account of his natural surroundings here? How and why is its “agony”(150) seen as half of a dramatic, literary parallelism in this passage? What happens to this tone as he continues talking on pages 150-1? Why? What does this tell us about the creation? How is the reader to respond to the development of this character? Why? What is Shelley’s point here? As page 151 is read, how is the reader’s perception of the creation augmented? What has happened at the “rapid river”(151)? Present a thorough accounts of the events. How is it possible to develop a correlation between the creation and Victor here? What happened as a result of his actions? Why? How and why did the creation finally conclude, “all joy was but a mockery”(152)? From the beginning of the existence of the being, how has the creation experienced a change in attitude towards the world around it? Who, or what, is responsible for this transformation? Is its opinion here understandable? Why? How and why does this resonate back to the sequence of events presented on page 59? With every episode, how is the creation treated? Why? Make the connections. Is its course of action here defensible? Why? What is the tragic and devastating next action made by the creation on page 153? What did it do?Discuss fully why this happened. Do you truly believe that the creation is to be considered guilty of murder here? Why? What is the creation ultimately searching for in this portion of the text? As we have discussed, what is wrong with this pursuit? Finally, what do you suppose is Mary Shelley’s moral with this tale? What are we to understand here?
4.5 The Poetry of William Blake
As discussed today, William Blake wrote two volumes of poems to thematically compare and contrast with one another. Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience deal with the same fundamental topics, but address them from vastly different perspectives. First, from today’s lecture, fully explain the opposing thematic distinction present in the reading of “The Lamb” and “The Tyger”. Discuss fully the tone and imagery present in each and explain why it distinguishes itself from its contrasting work while serving as ideal for its own volume of poetry. Discuss the unifying topic of discussion present in both poem and then explain how and why the response to this question is radically dissimilar given the two poems. Now, on your own, you are to read, decipher and annotate both of Blake’s poems entitled “The Chimney-Sweeper” as presented in Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience. How and why, as with the earlier pair of poems, are there unifying topics of discussion (yes, plural) with these two poems? Discuss fully the tone of the speaker from the Songs of Innocence text as established at the end of the second stanza and explain why, with this point, this text aptly belongs in this particular category. Understanding that there is definitely a dark aspect to this poem, what is the tone and message conveyed in this text? How and why is there a sense of consolation presented near the end of this poem? Why is there a sense of tragedy associated with this solace? What, then, is the point of the final stanza in the text? How and why is there to be seen a unifying theme between the consolation established in this text and the works of BOTH Chaucer and Marlowe? Make and fully explain the connections. Now, draw a distinction in the tone established in this poem with its contrasting text from Songs of Experience. How does this text deal with the same topic but from a completely different perspective? How is the tone of the consolation simultaneously strikingly similar as well as drastically different compared to the other poem? What do you think is Blake’s point in writing both texts? What are we to understand here? Again, fully explain why each poem distinguishes itself from its contrasting work while serving as ideal for its own volume of poetry.
4.6 The Poetry of William Blake & William Wordsworth
Discuss fully how Blake changes the traditional imagery of the pastoral setting in “The Garden of Love” as contrasted with his poems “The Lamb” and “The Chimney Sweeper” from The Songs of Innocence. According to the poem, what has happened to the natural world? Why has this change occurred? Who is to blame? Why? Discuss fully the imagery of the “Chapel” and its surrounding area. What is Blake’s point with this poem? Fully explain the social commentary made with this work. Now make the thematic correlation between Blake’s work and Wordsworth’s poem “The Tables Turned”. How and why do these two works, from different authors, seem to parallel in BOTH theme and opinion? Make the connections. What is the speaker’s attitude towards academia in Wordsworth’s poem? Why? The dialogue seems very straightforward and simple for the first five stanzas. The seventh stanza of the poem explains the rationale for his distaste for academic knowledge. How is his reasoning very eloquently and simply summed up with the following: “Our meddling intellect / Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things:– / We murder to dissect”(26-8)? Discuss how and why it is clear that this observation brilliantly applies to the commentary presented by Mary Shelley. Make and fully explain the connections. Do you believe that this pursuit of knowledge and understanding is something to criticize or celebrate? Fully explain why. The final stanza of the poem offers an alternative to the concerns voiced throughout the earlier stanzas of the text. Here the speaker explains what is necessary for his proposal to be effective. How and why do lines 31 & 32 spell out what is vitally important for this type of student? How SHOULD we behave? Discuss fully how and why the sentiment and message of the conclusion of this poem is to be seen as an echo of reflections made by Victor Frankenstein. How is Wordsworth presenting the same opinion here as was expressed by Shelley in Chapter Ten? Make and fully explain the connections with evidence from both texts. The poem “We Are Seven” seems to be thematically summed up with the first stanza of the poem. Discuss the shift of tone of the speaker as the poem progresses from line one to line sixty-nine. Why does the tone change? What does this tell us about the speaker? What is the speaker attempting to accomplish? How? Why? Based on her behavior, what are we to come to understand about the “little cottage Girl”(5)? Based on this text, do you believe that that child represents innocence or experience? Why? How does her behavior come off to you as a reader? Why? Fully support your opinion with textual evidence. In looking at the interaction between the speaker and the girl, and analyzing what the speaker is attempting to do through the duration of the text, how is it possible to see the theme of this text as similar to all that we have seen in Frankenstein, “The Garden of Love” and “The Tables Turned”? Now, with looking at the final stanza of the poem, with how the speaker closes the text, how and why is it possible to also see the outcome as strikingly different from the earlier works from the Romantic Era? Fully explain the distinctions with evidence from all works in question.
4.7 The Poetry of William Wordsworth, A.E. Housman and Oscar Wilde
In a study of Housman’s poem ‘To An Athlete Dying Young’, discuss how the mood and tone of the first and second stanzas is vastly different while the literal dramatic images presented are extremely similar. What has happened with the transition from stanza one to two? Looking at the first line of the third stanza, the entire message of the text becomes quite clear when a single word is replaced. As you look at all of the commentary and opinions that follows, what word could you use as a synonym for “smart”(9) in this specific context? Fully explain your argument. Given the subject matter of the poem, what purpose does the first stanza serve? How and why would the poem have a different impact if the first stanza were not present? How and why does the following line encapsulate the message of the text in its entirety: “And early though the laurel grows / It withers quicker than the rose”(11-12)? How and why does this specific imagery resonate directly to the profession of the title character? Finally, what is the purpose of the final stanza of the poem? How does this passage ensure to the reader a sort of consolation? With what are we left? How? Why? Next, develop and fully explain the tonal thematic correlation between Wordsworth’s poem “We Are Seven” and Housman’s “To An Athlete Dying Young”. With drastically different stories being told, they express fundamentally the same sentiment. Explain. How would you describe Oscar Wilde’s poem “Magdalen Walks”? What poetic device is at work in this poem? What other poem that we read in class most closely resembles the tone of Wilde’s? Look at the individual stanzas in and of themselves. What is Wilde doing to the reader with each passage? How does Wilde so effectively put us, as readers, into the moment created? How and why does the final stanza seem to put a peculiar spin on the traditional form of this tone? Look at the language used to describe these final images. Explain what you believe to be the purpose of this subtle twist. What do you think is Wilde’s point here?
4.8 The Poetry of Oscar Wilde and Thomas Hardy
Begin this RAP with an in-depth analysis of the thematic similarity present in Wilde’s poems “Magdalen Walks” and “Impression du Matin”. Cite and explain the language present in each to unify the poems in both theme and tone. Now, discuss the major differences between the two. What has Wilde done to the poetry of his predecessors such as Blake and Wordsworth with this text? Remembering that Wilde is writing almost 100 years after Blake and Wordsworth, what do you suppose is the rationale for this shift? What has happened to the world in this time? Now with a focus on “Impression”, further this analysis with the study of lines 10 & 11 and then 11 & 12. Why are these passages here? What purpose do these images serve in this particular poem? What is Wilde saying about the industrial revolution with these two images? Explain how and why these two images can be seen as a response to the concerns expressed by The Romantics? Once the tone is set with the first three stanzas, what do you think is the purpose of the final image of the poem conveyed in the fourth stanza? How and why does this image both contradict and more fully develop the tone and imagery of the entire poem? Support your conclusion with evidence from the text. Develop, and support with evidence taken from the first nine stanzas of Wilde’s poem “The Harlot’s House”, the speaker’s opinion of the location that he and his love “stopped beneath”(3). What is the tone and imagery created regarding the activity in this location in the text with Wilde’s particular language? What is the implied connotation with this language? How and why can this poem be seen as a thematic continuation to his “Impression du Matin”? As you develop a THOROUGH study of the tone and imagery of this location and the people inside (both the women and the men), fully explain how and why it is possible to see this text as a vicious commentary of the effects if the industrial revolution. How are the individuals inside the house being presented? Based on the conclusions made here in the last few questions, why does the ending of the poem, the final three stanzas, seem somewhat unexpected? Put simply; WHY DID SHE GO IN THE HOUSE? Why do you think it happened?  What do you think is Wilde’s point with this text? Yet again, what is Wilde saying here about the industrial revolution? How and why is it possible to make a thematic correlation between this text and Blake’s “The Garden of Love”? Make the connection. As I hoped you were able to ascertain from the reading of “The Convergence of the Twain”, Hardy here is commenting on an historical event from 1912. What is that event? Considering the fundamental themes of the unit, what is “she”(3)? More importantly, what does “she”(3) represent? First, present a study of the first four stanzas with a focus on the following theme: Past Versus Present as presented in each individual stanza. With each image, what was intended? What is happening now? Look carefully at the imagery of each stanza individually. How and why is the remainder of the poem, stanzas six through eleven, an answer to the ‘fishes…query: ‘What does this vaingloriousness down here?”(13-5) Given the tone and presentation of the events, what is Hardy’s point with this piece? Like Wilde, you are going to look at Hardy’s poem as a truly ferocious criticism of the industrial revolution. Support your opinion. How and why is this event and sentiment presented here to be seen thematically as strikingly similar to what was presented in Shelley with regard to the natural world? Fully explain the connections.
4.9 Pages 120 - 129 (119-128 in new book) ending with "The dinner, as we have said, was over." of Les Miserables by Victor Hugo
Next, we have our final piece of literature to be read in CORE 10 Literature. Here we will focus on a single individual from Victor Hugo’s 1463-page epic masterpiece Les Miserables. Fantine is a beautiful literary character. Something that must be kept in mind regarding this text is that the word “mistress” here simply means “GIRLFRIEND”! As her story begins, what do you think it means when Hugo tells us that she “still maintained her first illusions”(121/119)? Is this to be considered a benefit or a detriment in her character? Why? As these first few pages introduce us to all four girls, there is a thematic distinction established as contrasting Fantine and the other three. How and why do we recognize a thematic parallel between the backstory of the girls and the volumes of William Blake? Make the connections. Next, fully explain how and why the following commentary and philosophy neatly sums up the opinion established by the other girls with regard to the relationships with their men: “She who will remain virtuous must have no compassion for her hands”(121/120). Fully explain how and why this philosophy resonates back to issues established in Blake, Wordsworth and Shelley. On pages 122 & 123/121 & 122 the author discusses the differences; behavioralsocial and physical, between Fantine and Tholomyes. How and why do they seem to be perfect contrasting foils for one another? What does each have to their advantage? What does each lack? Fully discuss your opinion. How and why does this quote further elaborate their differences: “To him, it was an affair; to her a passion”(122/121)? The chapters “Four for Four” and “Tholomyes is So Happy, He Sings A Spanish Song” present us with a literary tone that has been studied at length in the poetry read in this unit. Explain. How is it present here? Near the end of page 124/123 the author does something odd. What does he do? Why do you suppose he does this? Does it seem to be distracting to you as a reader, or does it bring you closer to the text? Why? Explain. Using all of the information given in these two chapters FULLY explain what you believe Hugo means with the simple conclusion: “We have said that Fantine was joy; she was also modesty”(126/125). In what ways does Fantine seem to differ from the rest of the quartet based on all that has been explained up to now? How and why does this character possess a certain dignity that every other character in the text seems to lack? Which of Fantine’s characteristics seem to be very highly regarded? Why? Which seem less admirable? Why? What would you consider to be Fantine’s tragic flaw? Fully explain why. With a focus on the imagery presented on pages 128 & 129/127 & 128, discuss fully how and why it is clear that Hugo is presenting the reader with a literary equivalent of a particular artistic movement that you have studied in Art History class. Make and fully explain the connections by drawing the obvious and direct parallels between the two disciplines.
4.10 Pages 130 - 133/129 - 132 & 141/140 starting with "At this moment, Favourite, crossing her arms" - 144/143 of Les Miserables by Victor Hugo
Here we begin “A Chapter of Self-Admiration” where the relationships between the men and women are fully explained with the dialogue between Favourite and Blacheville on pages 132 & 133.. In response to Blacheville’s initial question, what does Favourite admit? What is she saying about her relationship with her man? How does this opinion seem to be different as she confides in Dahlia? What is she admitting HERE?  How and why can this speech be seen as definitive with regard to the problem of priorities in their relationships? What seems wrong here? Why? Look at the brief passage on page 141 leading into the chapter entitled “Joyful End of Joy”. How and why does there seem to be something wrong with how the men leave the women in the restaurant on Tholomyes’ order? What is the implied message conveyed with this particular gesture? What are the men saying here? As the chapter opens, at the bottom of page 141/140, how and why is it clear that Fantine is, yet again, established as different from the other girls?  Following this, what is the significance of the comment made by Favourite: “This Fantine is…amazed at the simplest things”(142/141)? What did Fantine notice? Why was this trivialized by the other girls? Why is there a certain degree of irony in this moment? Why does her behavior here resonate with all that has been established up to this point in the text? The letter, besides being obscenely condescending, is also extremely enlightening regarding the bourgeois class in France at the time of this tale. What are we to learn about the social classes as explained here between the men and women that we have been introduced to in the past two days? While it is nearly impossible to defend HOW the men behave, discuss fully how and why there is a certain degree of nobility in WHAT they are doing. What are we to understand about the role of the bourgeois class in society here? How and why do you suppose that the men held a certain degree of justification with their actions based on the final sentence of the letter. (Not the Post Script) If the women are supposedly devoted to these men, why don’t the men just continue their careers with them? In other words, why doesn’t Tholomyes just take Fantine home with him? We KNOW that he will never be able find anyone to match Fantine’s beauty. Discuss fully how and why this is a prime example of Social Darwinism. FINALLY, fully explain how and why the actions of the men can be thematically tied to a specific painting you have already studied in Art History. Make the connections.
4.11 Pages 145 - 157/144 - 156 of Les Miserables by Victor Hugo
Book Four begins with an introduction to characters that will be pivotal to the development of Fantine. Here, as the title explains, “One Mother Meets Another”. The first description of Cosette; Fantine’s daughter, is on page 147/146. Looking at this entire page, what do we learn here about both mother and daughter? Again here Hugo makes a sharp criticism about his society. What major dilemma is Fantine presently facing? How and why do we see here the cruelty of social standards? What is it demanding of her? What must Fantine do to ensure that she can care for Cosette?  To clarify this, look at the commentary being made by the author on pages 148-9/147-8. What is Cosette called by the narrator at the top of page 149 of the packet and near the top of page 148 of the new edition of the book? Of what is Fantine guilty? What is her “crime”? Who, or what, is responsible for instilling this cultural mindset in the people? Looking at pages 147 thru 149/146 thru 148, what else do we learn about Fantine? What characteristics has she been able to keep? What has she lost? Why? Fully explain the significance of the following episode between Fantine and Mdm. Thenardier with the following quote: “Magic charms do exist. These two little girls were one for this mother”(149/148).  Fully explain how and why this observation can apply to the current situation of BOTH women. Fully explain what happens from the moment of this observation to the question posed at the bottom of page 151 of the packet and the top of page 151 of the new edition of the book. Why did it happen? What observation made by Madame Thenardier seems to inspire Fantine to ask this question? Look at the phrasing of the immediate response of the question as presented at the top of page 152. What does this brief detail tell us about what had just transpired on the last page? What is implied here? Why? A third of the way down the page, who is the next character introduced? What seems odd regarding Fantine’s initial interaction with this character? Why? What does this tell us about this character? Look at the pacing of the text on page 152/153 with regard to the dialogue of Thenardier and his wife. What do we learn here about this couple based on this detail? How and why does the following line, from the chapter entitled “First Sketch of Two Equivocal Faces”, sums up the episode that just transpired: “The captured mouse was very puny, but the cat exults even over a lean mouse”(153/152)? In this chapter, Hugo describes the class to which the Thenardiers’ belong. What does the narrator tell us here about this “bastard class”(153/152)? Establish the distinctions here between this social group and the class to which Tholomyes belongs. Which seems to be the more admirable? Why? Explain what the “sign of (Thenardier’s) inn”(154/153) implies about the proprietor of the establishment? Based on all that we have learned about this character thus far, how can the image be “spun” to adequately define him? How must the image from page 145/144 be interpreted? How and why can the following seemingly contradictory claim be relevant to the portrayal of this character: that he is “at once coarse and fine”(154)? What do we learn about Cosette in the chapter entitled “The Lark”? What has happened to her? Why? What is the initial public opinion of what is happening here, and what the Thenardiers are doing? Why is this so painful for us to hear? What do we know that the townspeople do not? As the chapter progresses, and as the townspeople watch the gradual physical deterioration of Cosette, why do you suppose that the people of town “were happy to give a nickname to this (particular) child”(157/156)? What is the implication with this action? How and why might this be an adaptation of the earlier established “public opinion”? What are the people doing here? Connect this to William Blake’s poem “The Chimney-Sweeper” from Songs of Experience. (Think about the first line of the poem) What is Hugo’s vicious comment on society here? Explain the meaning of the final line of this chapter.
4.12 Pages 168 - 173/167 - 172 ending with "tranquility of M. Madeleine." & 177 - 180/176 - 178 ending with "She had bowed to that decree." of Les Miserables by Victor Hugo
On page 168 we are introduced to Chief Inspector Javert in the chapter entitled ‘Vague Flashes On You Horizon’. As presented in the first paragraph of this chapter, discuss full how and why it is clear that the main character of this epic masterpiece Jean Valjean, currently living under the pseudonym Monsieur Madeleine, has truly become a full-fledged member of the Bourgeois Class, as was established earlier with Tholomyes and ‘the surprise'(142)? As the chapter continues, as you look at page 169/168, discuss fully how Javert views the Mayor differently from everyone else. Why? Fully explain how and why it is clear that there are striking parallels between the personal histories of Javert and Valjean. Make the connections. Next, discuss fully how their upbringings and cultural views are drastically different. How has each man chosen to view the world around them? As we look at these two LITERARY FOILS, what do you suppose is the author’s statement about his society? Discuss fully how and why the sentiment presented in the following quote regarding Javert is a direct echo to themes presented in the work of an author from the last unit. Make the connections: ‘This man was a compound of two sentiments, simple and good in themselves, but he made them almost evil by his exaggeration of them: respect for authority and hatred of rebellion.'(171/170) How and why does this passage clearly and simply define Chief Inspector Javert? As you continue to read this chapter, looking at the first half of page 172/171, discuss how and why the behavior presented here by the Chief Inspector is strikingly similar to earlier actions taken by Mr. Thenardier as presented on page 152/151. In what ways are these two men frighteningly similar? Based on all that we have been told, is Chief Inspector Javert to be admired or hated for his social mindset? Is he a villain as compared to Jean Valjean? Defend your conclusions with at least three passages of textual evidence properly cited and analyzed. Fully explain the sarcastic significance of the title of the next assigned chapter on page 177/176: “Madame Victurnien Spends Thirty-Five Francs On Morality” with an analysis of the events chronicled on the next two pages. With this summation of the events include how and why Fantine experiences drastic emotional shifts on two pages. How and why is Fantine victimized in this chapter? Why is she targeted? What happens to her as a result of this action? How and why is it possible to establish another thematic parallel between this moment and what Shelley presented earlier in this unit? Make the connections. Again, here Hugo again discusses the utter repulsiveness of the social standards of France with this episode. What is to blame on a social level? Fully support your opinion. Discuss fully how and why, according to the author, the motivation for this endeavor is this “(a) sad thing”(178/177)?
4.13 Pages 180 - 190/179 - 189 of Les Miserables by Victor Hugo
Considering yesterday’s discussion and analysis, why is the next chapter of the text entitled “Madame Victurnien’s Victory”? What has happened to Fantine? How and why does does it seem that the mayor has something to do with Fantine’s destiny? Looking at the bottom of page 180/179, describe Fantine’s present damned situation. What is her current dilemma? Why is she, basically, trapped in her current predicament? By the end of this chapter, how has Fantine changed? Is she to be admired in some way for this action? Why? What is, as discussed in the next chapter, the “Outcome of the Success”? WHOSE success?!?  I want you to make a distinct correlation between Fantine’s first major loss in this chapter with regard to both event and sentiment as conveyed in one of the poems read in this unit. Where are the thematic parallels? Discuss with evidence taken from both texts. Considering not only the series of events that are portrayed here, but also the tone taken by Hugo in this passage, discuss fully what the author wants the reader to understand and feel about this series of events. Be clear and thorough in your analysis. After reading the letter from the Thenardiers, Fantine speaks to Marguerite. What is the purpose of the dialogue regarding “military fever” on page 185/184? What does it tell us about the Thenardiers? For a moment, what was Fantine briefly contemplating? What happened to this consideration, based on Marguerite’s response? Immediately following this, we have Fantine’s second major loss. How does she feel about this action? Why? What does this behavior further prove about this character? Why? How and why does Fantine’s action, up to this point, resonate back to a concept introduced on page 121/120 of the text? How do the Thenardiers change Fantine’s embrace of this philosophy by the end of this chapter? What has she decided to become? Why? How does the following line support and defend Fantine’s decision to take up this profession: “The holy law of Jesus Christ governs our civilization, but it does not yet permeate it”(187/186)? Again, explain the attack made by Hugo regarding social standards. Compare and contrast the imagery of Fantine established at the bottom of page 187/186 with that of a description of her from the chapter entitled ‘Four for Four’. How and why, tragically, is there a powerful sense of similarity in the imagery here? What do you think is Hugo’s point here? With an in-depth study of both moments, and both images, what had happened to the woman who was “brought forth from the heart of the people”(122/121)? How does Fantine respond to M. Bamatabois’ verbal assaults? When and why, then, does her demeanor change with the incident with the snow? What admirable characteristic does she seem to still possess? Explain.
4.14 Pages 191 - 203/189 - 201 & 250-257/248-255 of Les Miserables by Victor Hugo
How is Fantine’s behaving as she is led to the police station by Javert? What does her demeanor suggest, given her perspective of the events? Why would she present this attitude? Support her actions here. Fully explain how and why the following observation applies to the episode in question in the text as well as present day society: “Curiosity is gluttony. To see is to devour”(191/190). What does this tell us about Hugo’s society as well as our own? Next, with evidence from the text explain Inspector Javert’s “formidable discretionary power”(191/190) in the police station. What is his preconceived attitude regarding the episode in the snow? How and why has he already determined Fantine’s guilt in the situation? Again, how does this opinion translate to contemporary American society? How does Fantine dehumanize herself in this episode? Is this action to be determined as completely degrading or utterly noble of her? Explain. How does her plea to Javert on pages 192 & 193/191 & 192 take different tones and approaches? Explain at least three shifts with textual evidence. Discuss fully why Javert would respond with “a sort of angry awkwardness”(193/192) when he recognizes the man who has been in the station? How does Fantine respond when she recognizes the mayor? Why? Fully explain how and why her action and the Mayor’s instant response draws out the following: “Javert felt as though he were about to lose his mind”(193/192). Discuss why Fantine opinion seems to be a bit unclear as to the events as they are playing out. What does she believe is happening here? Why? By the end of page 195/194, what have we come to understand about Fantine? How and why does Fantine’s tone and demeanor change at the top of page 196 or the middle of page 195? What has she done here? How does this, yet again, further define this character? Pages 196 to 198/195 to 197 chronicles a clash of two titans in the town of Montreuil-sur-mer. Fully explain, with at least three quote each, the arguments held by both Mayor Madeleine and Inspector Javert. Ensure to include the mayor’s implication near the top of page 197/196, and what you believe to be Javert’s response to this claim. Page 199 finally presents some consolation and closure for Fantine. How does she react to this? Why? With the chapter “Now, Rest”, Madeleine explains to Fantine that she is “now among the elect…(the)…way that mortals become angels”(201/199). Don’t you think that Fantine is already there? Explain your opinion. What has Javert decided to do in this chapter? Why? Yet again, Hugo makes a scathing social attack with the following: “It was not without some repugnance, at first, that the sisters received and cared for this girl”(202/199). Fully explain his commentary here. Finally, explain how and why the Thenardiers respond to Fantine’s letters. What do you think about this development? Why?Fully discuss how and why “Sister Simplice (has been) Put To The Test”(250/248). What does this chapter chronicle? What has happened to this character we have come to respect and admire based on the physical description given on page 251? What seems to be the most tragic detail in this passage? Explain. While Fantine deteriorates physically, what keeps her going? How and why does this resonate back to an observation made about this character on page 121/120? As this chapter is read, up to and including page 257/255, what possible prognosis do both the reader and the doctor consider regarding Fantine’s illness? How and why could this possibility add to the tragedy of the character?
4.15 Pages 284 - 300/282 - 298 of Les Miserables by Victor Hugo
In the chapter “Fantine Happy”(284/282) we have a sense of solace for her with the line “To her Cosette seemed a little girl who could be carried”(285/283). Discuss full how and why this sense of solace or consolation, for both mother and daughter, can be found in one of the poems read in the unit. Make the specific connection. Javert returns to the scene with a complete clarification and understanding of the identity of the mayor of Montreuil-sur-mer as presented in the chapter entitled ‘Javert Satisfied’. There is a frightening sense of satisfaction in this character on page 290/288. What is Hugo’s point in his celebration of Javert’s character flaw? How and why is Javert here a “ferocious archangel”(290/289)? Is he to be admired or loathed for this? Why? Next, Javert speaks to Valjean as “Authority Gains Its Power” (291/289). What is he significance of what Hugo tells us about how Javert speaks here? Why is this behavior perfectly understandable considering Javert’s personality and also keeping in mind all that has transpired between these two characters from yesterday’s passage of the text? Completely support your opinions. Here are the six fundamental themes that will be dealt with in the final exam, each will be presented once in the test: 1.innocence versus experience, 2.imagery, 3.nature, 4.memory, 5.sacrifice and 6.corruption & oppression. It will be your responsibility to determine which passage of textual evidence best exemplifies each particular theme. Thank you for continuing to follow directions until the end of our time together. We have a devastating and tragic moment on page 293/291. Fully explain what happened to the attitude from the past six pages. How and why is it clear that the information presented by Javert served as the catalyst for Fantine’s death? Nevertheless, how and why can this event be blamed on Valjean, Javert and Thenardier? How and why are they all to be held responsible for Fantine’s fate? Explain why, at the end of this chapter, “Fantine’s face seemed strangely luminous”(294/292).  With the final chapter assigned, yet again, we get a great sense of social commentary being made by Hugo. As with earlier discussions, discuss fully how and why the public opinion of Jean Valjean is hauntingly similar to the earlier opinions and attitudes held of Fantine by the masses. What is Hugo’s point here? Finally, why, according to Hugo, is Fantine laid to rest in “A Fitting Grave”(295/293)? How has Hugo’s commentary and tone remained consistent throughout this entire text? Why has this been the case? What is this author telling the reader about his society with the tragic yet glorious story of Fantine? This entire story is an example of a major theme that has been discussed in this unit. You will explain how and why this brilliantly tragic and magnificently noble character, with all that we have read about her, thematically resonates in all the texts that we have read in this unit for this class. You will use evidence taken from no fewer than six other texts to explain the thematic unity. How have Blake, Wordsworth, Housman, Shelley, Hardy, Wilde and Hugo all addressed the same general theme? What do all of them have to say on the topic? Finally, discuss fully how and why the entire tale of Fantine, with all of her trials and tribulations, can be thematically represented in one particular work of art? How is it clear that one painting that you have studied best and most effectively symbolically captures this heroine’s entire tale? Make your case. Be clear and specific in your analysis.